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쿡방프로그램 트렌드에 따른 시청자들의 성역할 인식변화

Title
쿡방프로그램 트렌드에 따른 시청자들의 성역할 인식변화
Other Titles
A study on the change in audience’s sex­role perception brought about by the trend of Korean­style cooking shows(‘cookbang’)
Authors
김경임
Issue Date
2017
Department/Major
대학원 에코크리에이티브협동과정
Publisher
이화여자대학교 대학원
Degree
Master
Advisors
최윤정
Abstract
신조어로 사전에도 오른 ‘쿡방’은 요리하다는 뜻의 ‘쿡(cook)’과 ‘방송’의 합성어로 출연자들이 직접 요리하고 그 레시피를 공개하며 맛있게 먹는 모습을 보여주는 프로그램을 통칭한다. 쿡방의 특징은 전통적인 요리 프로그램과 달리 진행 MC와 패널 등이 거의 대부분 남성들로 이루어져 있으며, 토크와 대결구도 등의 오락적 요소를 강화한 리얼리티 예능 프로그램이다. 본 연구는 최근 몇 년 사이 방송계의 새로운 ‘트렌드(trend)’로 급부상한 남성 출연자 중심의 쿡방 프로그램이 시청자들이 가진 남성과 여성의 성에 따른 성역할 고정관념을 변화시키는 영향력을 가지고 있는지를 검증하기 위한 목적으로 이루어졌다. 우리 사회는 오랫동안 이어져온 유교적 사상의 영향으로 남성과 여성의 일을 구분하는 ‘성역할 고정관념’이 견고하다. 그러나 시청자들이 쿡방을 자주 시청할수록, 남성 출연자에 대한 친밀감 형성 →남자가 요리하는 것에 대한 긍정적 인식→실제 요리를 해 본 경험→남녀 간의 주방일에 대한 평등한 인식 / 남녀 간의 가사노동 분담에 대한 긍정적 태도를 가지게 될 것으로 예측라고 ‘5가지 가설’을 제시하였다. 가설 검증을 위하여 ‘온라인 설문조사’를 실시하였으며, 20대~40대까지의 남녀 시청자 320명의 응답을 확보하고 SPSS 통계프로그램으로 ‘위계적 회귀분석’을 실시하였다. 분석 결과, 쿡방 시청량(시청 편수/시청 기간)은 출연자에 대한 친밀감 형성에 주요한 변인이었으며 남성에 비해 여성의 친밀감이 더 높게 형성되었다. 이러한 친밀감은 남자가 요리하는 것에 대한 긍정적 인식으로 이어졌다. 시청자들은 쿡방을 본 이후에 실제 요리를 해 본 경험이 늘어났으며 1인가구가 다인가구보다 더 많은 요리 따라하기를 시행해 본 것으로 나타났다. 남녀 간의 주방일에 대한 평등한 인식과 남녀 간의 가사노동 분담에 대한 긍적적 태도에는 남성 출연자에 대한 친밀감과 남자가 요리하는 것에 대한 긍정적 인식의 영향력이 높게 나타났으나 실제 요리해 본 경험의 영향력은 미미하였다. 기존 성역할 태도가 전통적인 시청자들은 현대적인 태도를 가진 시청자에 비해 상대적으로 이러한 인식에 다소의 거부감이 있는 것으로 여겨진다.;In Korean­style cooking shows(‘cookbang’) professional (celeb) chefs and/or other celebrities cook various foods themselves and share the recipes. Eating the foods they make also is an essential part of the cooking shows. ‘Cookbang’ is different from traditional cooking shows in that MC’s and other cast are mostly male, with entertainment elements such as talks, competition, and other components of reality shows. (‘Cookbang’ is a compound word combining ‘cook’ and ‘bangsong .’ ‘Bangsong’ is a Korean word for ‘broadcasting.’) Entering ‘Information Age’ from ‘Industrial Age,’ ‘androgyny’ came into the spotlight in modern society, making men’s cooking one of socially accepted culture codes. Taking notice of the potential relationship between androgyny and ‘cookbang,’ it is assumed that ‘cookbang’ could play an important role in the process of developing into a more gender­equal society. Viewing ‘cookbang’ with predominant male chefs could form familiarity with the male chefs through ‘para­social interaction,’ bringing about some changes in sex­role stereotype as the ‘cultivation theory’ says. The purpose of this study is to verify whether the television audience are influenced by recent ‘cookbang’ trend in Korea in their sex­role stereotype perceptions. Due to the long­lasting Confucianism, most Korean people have very rigid‘sex­role stereotype,’perceiving men’s and women’s traditional roles separately. But it is presumed people’s perceptions and attitudes tend to change as they watch ‘cookbang’ more often, building phased changes in perceptions about and attitudes to 1) forming familiarity with the male cast; 2) men’s cooking; 3) actual practice of cooking; 4) egalitarian attitude to kitchen works; and 5) egalitarian attitude to houseworks. These five consecutive, intertwined stages are set up as five hypotheses of this study. To verify above hypotheses, an online questionnaire was asked to be filled out to 320 respondents in their twenties, thirties, and forties. The survey results were analysed with the ‘hierarchical regression’ provided by SPSS. Major findings of this study are as follows: Regarding Hypothesis 1: Cast familiarity is higher among women, people in their twenties, married people, and people with higher viewership. Regarding Hypothesis 2: Higher familiarity proves to have positive relationship with positive attitude to men’s cooking, but people with traditional sex­role stereotype are not the case. Regarding Hypothesis 3: The assumption that positive attitude to men’s cooking will lead to actual cooking is more true when the respondents are women, married people, people with modern sex­role attitude, people who feel familiarity with the male cast, and people with positive attitude to men’s cooking. Regarding Hypothesis 4: The assumption that actual cooking experience will lead to egalitarian attitude to kitchen works is more true with women, people with multiple­member household, but it turned out to be not the case with people with traditional sex­role attitude. Though familiarity with the cast and positive attitude to men’s cooking were important variables, actual cooking experience was not. Regarding Hypothesis 5: The assumption that actual cooking experience will lead to egalitarian attitude to houseworks has results similar to Hypothesis 4, except for more positive answers from unmarried people. This study tried to find whether viewing ‘cookbang’ has effects on changes in sex-role stereotype, of which kitchen works and houseworks are major components. The results turned to be significant. The fact that ‘cookbang’ has brought about positive changes in the attitude to men’s cooking, which has been tabooed for centuries in Korea, could be an important groundwork for the upcoming transformation towards more modern and egalitarian sex­role attitude in general in Korean society.
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