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만화가의 직업만족도 결정요인에 관한 연구

Title
만화가의 직업만족도 결정요인에 관한 연구
Other Titles
A Study on Determinants of Job Satisfaction of Cartoonists, Focusing on Cartoonists in the Capital Area
Authors
김선미
Issue Date
2017
Department/Major
정책과학대학원 공공정책학전공
Publisher
이화여자대학교 정책과학대학원
Degree
Master
Advisors
최샛별송종길
Abstract
The purpose of this study is to identify the determinants of job satisfaction for cartoonists who live in the capital area. To this end, the study first conducted a survey of residences and associations to which cartoonists belonged to investigate them as the demographic characteristics of cartoonists. Second, sub-question naires for seven items were constructed to identify the status of cartoonists, and sub-items such as cartoonist career, activity environment, income, work environment, education, welfare, and job satisfaction were investigated. The study conducted a second analysis using the internal data of the nationwide condition survey of cartoonists and prospective cartoonists that had been conducted by the Korea Manhwa Contents Agency and also conducted a survey of job satisfaction of cartoonists who live in the capital area. And, to complement the research contents, an FGI was conducted on in-service cartoonists. In order to analyze the collected data, frequency analysis, ANOVA, factor analysis and regression analysis were conducted using the SPSS 23.0 program. The results of the analysis showed that the overall job satisfaction of cartoonists was not high. Among the seven items, the highest satisfaction was shown in work contents, followed by prospects, work environment and sense of accomplishment. On the contrary, economic strength, job stability and welfare showed relatively low satisfaction. Job satisfaction was measured by dividing the satisfaction type into present satisfaction and future satisfaction according to organization or association membership, the field of creative work, working hours, work space, staff, form of creative activity, annual income, etc. In the results of measurement, both present satisfaction and future satisfaction were found to be high when cartoonists belonged to an organization or association, and while present satisfaction varied depending on the field of creative work, future satisfaction did not show any difference according to the field of creative work. No significant difference was observed in present satisfaction and future satisfaction according to the type of work space operation. As for job satisfaction according to staff, however, present satisfaction was high with an increase of staff, while future satisfaction did not show a statistically significant difference. As for the form of creative activity, cartoonists with a regular permanent position in a company showed low present satisfaction, and future satisfaction showed a difference according to each form. Both present satisfaction and future satisfaction were found to be high with higher annual income. Present satisfaction was high when cartoonists were covered by the four major public insurance system, while future satisfaction did not show a difference according to coverage by the public insurance system. As for job satisfaction according to the type of preparation for old age, the cartoonists who prepared for old age had high present satisfaction, while future satisfaction was not influenced by the type of preparation for old age. As for the result of analysis of the correlation between job satisfaction and role stress, genre of activity, income, and working hours had a positive correlation with future satisfaction while cartoonists of older age showed lower future satisfaction. In addition, the higher role stress was, the lower future satisfaction was. Four policy suggestions based on the analysis results of this study are as follows. First, there is a need to prepare a policy to encourage mandatory application for the four major public insurances and the use of a standard form contract in order for cartoonists to maintain their lives as members of society and for creators’ rights to be protected. Second, a segmentalized manhwa support policy is needed for the sustainability and diversity of the manhwa market. Third, manhwa education needs to be reexamined and expanded according to the changing market environment. Fourth, a space support policy should also be prepared in order for cartoonists to work at low costs. This study has limitations in that the setting of the range of high-income cartoonists was too simplified as there was no exact information about the income of cartoonists. Future research needs to calculate the income range on average along with the platform. In addition, the sample for an empirical study needs to be generalized. Actually, cartoonists with a monthly income over 100 million KRW and most veteran cartoonists work in individual studios. As this study mainly surveyed cartoonists in public institutions, future studies need to secure a sample of famous high-income cartoonists. In addition, the sample, which was limited to the capital area, needs to be expanded in a follow-up study. This study is significant in that a status survey of domestic cartoonists and factor analysis related to their job satisfaction were conducted. Also, as domestic research related to cartoonists is limited and factor analysis of their job satisfaction is lacking, this empirical study is expected to play a role as important industry and policy data for the growth of the domestic manhwa industry and webtoon market. The purpose of this study is to identify the determinants of job satisfaction for cartoonists who live in the capital area. To this end, the study first conducted a survey of residences and associations to which cartoonists belonged to investigate them as the demographic characteristics of cartoonists. Second, sub-questionnaires for seven items were constructed to identify the status of cartoonists, and sub-items such as cartoonist career, activity environment, income, work environment, education, welfare, and job satisfaction were investigated. The study conducted a second analysis using the internal data of the nationwide condition survey of cartoonists and prospective cartoonists that had been conducted by the Korea Manhwa Contents Agency and also conducted a survey of job satisfaction of cartoonists who live in the capital area. And, to complement the research contents, an FGI was conducted on in-service cartoonists. In order to analyze the collected data, frequency analysis, ANOVA, factor analysis and regression analysis were conducted using the SPSS 23.0 program. The results of the analysis showed that the overall job satisfaction of cartoonists was not high. Among the seven items, the highest satisfaction was shown in work contents, followed by prospects, work environment and sense of accomplishment. On the contrary, economic strength, job stability and welfare showed relatively low satisfaction. Job satisfaction was measured by dividing the satisfaction type into present satisfaction and future satisfaction according to organization or association membership, the field of creative work, working hours, work space, staff, form of creative activity, annual income, etc. In the results of measurement, both present satisfaction and future satisfaction were found to be high when cartoonists belonged to an organization or association, and while present satisfaction varied depending on the field of creative work, future satisfaction did not show any difference according to the field of creative work. No significant difference was observed in present satisfaction and future satisfaction according to the type of work space operation. As for job satisfaction according to staff, however, present satisfaction was high with an increase of staff, while future satisfaction did not show a statistically significant difference. As for the form of creative activity, cartoonists with a regular permanent position in a company showed low present satisfaction, and future satisfaction showed a difference according to each form. Both present satisfaction and future satisfaction were found to be high with higher annual income. Present satisfaction was high when cartoonists were covered by the four major public insurance system, while future satisfaction did not show a difference according to coverage by the public insurance system. As for job satisfaction according to the type of preparation for old age, the cartoonists who prepared for old age had high present satisfaction, while future satisfaction was not influenced by the type of preparation for old age. As for the result of analysis of the correlation between job satisfaction and role stress, genre of activity, income, and working hours had a positive correlation with future satisfaction while cartoonists of older age showed lower future satisfaction. In addition, the higher role stress was, the lower future satisfaction was. Four policy suggestions based on the analysis results of this study are as follows. First, there is a need to prepare a policy to encourage mandatory application for the four major public insurances and the use of a standard form contract in order for cartoonists to maintain their lives as members of society and for creators’ rights to be protected. Second, a segmentalized manhwa support policy is needed for the sustainability and diversity of the manhwa market. Third, manhwa education needs to be reexamined and expanded according to the changing market environment. Fourth, a space support policy should also be prepared in order for cartoonists to work at low costs. This study has limitations in that the setting of the range of high-income cartoonists was too simplified as there was no exact information about the income of cartoonists. Future research needs to calculate the income range on average along with the platform. In addition, the sample for an empirical study needs to be generalized. Actually, cartoonists with a monthly income over 100 million KRW and most veteran cartoonists work in individual studios. As this study mainly surveyed cartoonists in public institutions, future studies need to secure a sample of famous high-income cartoonists. In addition, the sample, which was limited to the capital area, needs to be expanded in a follow-up study. This study is significant in that a status survey of domestic cartoonists and factor analysis related to their job satisfaction were conducted. Also, as domestic research related to cartoonists is limited and factor analysis of their job satisfaction is lacking, this empirical study is expected to play a role as important industry and policy data for the growth of the domestic manhwa industry and webtoon market.;이 연구는 수도권에 거주한 만화가들을 대상으로 직업만족도 결정요인에 관한 요인을 알아보는 연구이다. 이를 위해 첫째, 만화작가의 인구통계학적 특성으로 지역과 소속 협회 등을 알아보고자 하였으며. 이를 위해 거주지와 소속 협회 등에 대하여 설문하였다. 둘째, 만화작가의 현황파악을 위하여 7가지 항목에 대한 세부적 설문 문항을 구성하였다. 즉, 작가경력, 활동 환경, 수입, 근로 환경, 교육, 복지, 직업만족도 등의 세부 항목에 대하여 조사하였다. 이를 위해 한국만화영상진흥원에서 전국에 있는 만화가, 예비만화가를 대상으로 하는 실태조사 내부 데이터를 활용하여 2차 분석을 하였으며 수도권에 소재한 작가들을 중심으로 만족도에 관한 설문을 실시하였다. 그리고 연구내용을 보완하기 위해 현직 만화가대상으로 FGI를 실시하였다. 수집된 데이터에 대한 분석은 SPSS 23.0 통계 패키지를 이용하였으며 빈도분석, ANOVA, 요인분석, 회귀분석 등을 실시하였다. 조사 분석결과 전반적으로 만화가들은 직업에 대한 만족도는 높지 않은 것으로 조사되었다. 7개의 항목들 중 직무내용이 만족도가 높게 나타났으며 그 뒤를 이어서 장래성, 근로환경, 성취감 순으로 나타났다. 또한, 경제력, 직업안정성, 복지는 상대적으로 낮은 만족도를 보여주었다. 직업만족도 유형은 단체나 협회에 가입, 창작분야, 작업시간, 작업 공간, 스텝, 창작활동형태, 연수입 등에 따라 현실만족도와 장래만족도로 구분하고 만족도를 측정해보았다. 측정결과 협회나 단체에 가입하였을 때 현실만족도, 장래만족도면에서 높은 것으로 나타났으며 창작분야에 따라 현실만족도에선 차이가 있었지만 장래만족도는 차이가 없었다. 작업공간 운영형태에 따른 현실만족도와 장래만족도에서 유의미한 차이가 없는 것으로 나타났다. 그러나 스텝현황에 따른 직업만족도는 현실만족도에서는 스텝수가 많을수록 만족도가 높은 것으로 나타났으며 장래만족도에서는 통계적으로 유의미한 차이를 보이지 않았다. 창작활동형태에 따라서는 정규직회사소속의 작가가 현실만족도가 낮게 나타났으며 장래만족도는 각 유형에 따라 차이를 보였다. 연수입에 따른 직업만족도는 현실, 장래만족도에서 수입이 높을수록 만족도가 높게 나타났다. 4대보험 가입현황에 따른 만족도는 가입한 경우 현실만족도가 높게 나타났으며 장래만족도에서는 차이가 없었다. 노후준비 유형에 따른 직업만족도는 노후준비를 하는 작가의 경우 현실만족도가 높은 것으로 나타났으며 장래만족도에는 차이를 보이지 않았다. 직업만족도와 역할 스트레스와의 관계 분석결과는 활동장르, 수입, 작업시간은 장래만족도와 정적인 관계를 보였으며 나이는 나이가 많은 작가일수록 장래만족도가 낮은 것으로 분석되었다. 역할 스트레스가 높을수록 장래만족도가 낮은 것으로 조사되었다. 이번 연구에서 조사 분석된 내용으로 4가지 정책적 제안을 제시해보고자 한다. 첫째, 사회구성원으로 삶을 유지하며 창작자의 권리를 보호받을 수 있도록 4대보험 의무가입과 표준계약서 사용을 권장하는 정책을 마련해야 한다. 둘째, 만화시장의 지속성과 다양성을 위해 세분화된 만화지원정책이 수립되어야 한다. 셋째, 변화하는 시장환경에 따른 만화교육의 재점검과 교육의 확대가 필요하다. 넷째, 작가들이 저렴한 비용으로 작업을 할수 있는 공간지원정책이 마련되어야 한다. 이 연구의 한계는 만화 작가들의 수입에 대한 정확한 정보가 없는 상황에서 고소득만화가에 대한 구간 설정을 너무 단순화하였다. 향후 조사에서는 플랫폼과 함께 수입구간을 평균적으로 산출할 필요가 있을 것이다. 추가적으로 실증조사 표본에 대한 일반화가 필요성이다. 실제 만화계서 활동하는 작가 중 월 1억이상의 수입이 있는 작가와 중견작가들의 대부분은 개인 작업실에서 작업을 하고 상황에서 본 연구는 공공기관에 입주하고 있는 작가 위주의 설문조사가 이루어짐으로써 고소득 유명작가의 표본 확보가 필요할 것으로 파악된다. 이와 동시에 수도권으로 한정한 표본의 확장성도 후속 연구에서는 요구되어야 할 것이다. 이에 본 연구는 국내의 만화작가에 대한 현황 파악 및 직업만족도와 관련 요인 분석을 시도하였다는 의의를 지니고 있다. 또한, 만화작가와 관련한 국내 연구의 한정적 상황과 직업만족도에 미치는 요인 분석한 연구가 전무한 상황에서 실증적 연구의 시행은 국내 만화계와 웹툰 시장의 성장 마련을 위한 중요한 산업 및 정책 자료로써 기능할 것으로 판단된다.
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