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Fish oil contaminated with persistent organic pollutants induces colonic aberrant crypt foci formation and reduces antioxidant enzyme gene expression in rats
- Fish oil contaminated with persistent organic pollutants induces colonic aberrant crypt foci formation and reduces antioxidant enzyme gene expression in rats
- Hong M.Y.; Hoh E.; Kang B.; DeHamer R.; Kim J.Y.; Lumibao J.
- Ewha Authors
- Issue Date
- Journal Title
- Journal of Nutrition
- vol. 147, no. 8, pp. 1524 - 1530
- Aberrant crypt foci; Antioxidant enzyme; Colon; Fish oil; Persistent organic pollutants
- American Society for Nutrition
- SCI; SCIE; SCOPUS
- Background: Epidemiologic, clinical, and experimental studies have suggested that fish oil (FO), a rich source of n-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids, protects against colon cancer. However, this message is confounded by the FDA's warning that the consumption of certain types of fish should be restricted because of contamination with persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides. Objective: We examined FO contaminated with POPs (PCBs, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, and chlordane) compared with unmodified FO on the risk factors of colon cancer development. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats aged 28 d (n = 30) were allocated into 3 groups and fed 15% corn oil (CO), FO, or POP-contaminated FO for 9 wk with a subcutaneous injection of colon carcinogen azoxymethane at weeks 3 and 4. Colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and cell proliferation were enumerated, and the gene expression of inflammation, antioxidant enzymes, and repair enzymes were determined with the use of real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis. Results: FO-fed rats had a lower number of ACF (mean±SE: 29±4.0 for FO compared with 53±8.4 for CO and 44±4.6 for POP FO) and higher-multiplicity ACF than the CO and POP FO groups (4.7 ± 0.9 for FO compared with 11 ± 1.5 for CO and 9.6 ± 1.8 for POP FO) (P < 0.05). FO feeding lowered the proliferation index compared with the CO and POP FO feeding groups (18% ± 1.1% for FO compared with 25% ± 1.6% for CO and 23% ± 0.7% for POP FO) (P = 0.009). Superoxide dismutase [2.4 ± 0.6 relative quantification (RQ) for FO compared with 1.2 ± 0.2 RQ for CO and 1.3 ± 0.3 RQ for POP FO] and catalase gene expression (10 ± 2.0 RQ for FO compared with 5.4 ± 1.1 RQ for CO and 6.6 ± 1.5 RQ for POP FO) were higher in the FO group than in the CO and POP FO groups (P < 0.05). There were no differences between CO and POP FO on the variables. Conclusion: These results indicate that POPs in FO reduce the preventive effects of FO on colon carcinogenesis by increasing preneoplastic lesion formation through the downregulation of antioxidant enzyme expression and increasing cell proliferation in rats. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.
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