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Retinol, alpha-tocopherol, and selected minerals in breast milk of lactating women with full-term infants in South Korea
- Retinol, alpha-tocopherol, and selected minerals in breast milk of lactating women with full-term infants in South Korea
- Kim, Hyesook; Jung, Byung-Mun; Lee, Bum-Noh; Kim, Yun-Je; Jung, Ji A.; Chang, Namsoo
- Ewha Authors
- 장남수; 김혜숙
- SCOPUS Author ID
- 장남수; 김혜숙
- Issue Date
- Journal Title
- NUTRITION RESEARCH AND PRACTICE
- 1976-1457; 2005-6168
- vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 64 - 69
- Vitamins; minerals; fats; breast milk; Korea
- KOREAN NUTRITION SOC
- SCIE; SCOPUS; KCI
- BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: This study was performed to measure fat-soluble vitamins and minerals in breast milk of Korean lactating mothers who exclusively breastfed their babies. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Breast milk samples were collected from 334 mothers. Concentrations of retinol and a.-tocopherol were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography ultraviolet spectrometry while concentrations of minerals were measured by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. RESULTS: Retinol and a-tocopherol contents of breast milk were 39.58 +/- 19.64 pg/dL and 0.23 +/- 0.13 mg/dL, respectively. Average sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium levels in breast milk were 11.11 +/- 5.16, 38.56 +/- 9.01, 27.87 +/- 6.10, 13.56 +/- 3.30, and 3.05 +/- 0.65 mg/dL, respectively. Contents of trace elements such as iron, zinc, copper, and manganese were 40.26 +/- 46.21, 98.40 +/- 62.47, 24.09 +/- 9.03, and 0.90 +/- 1.63 mu g/dL, respectively. Fat-soluble vitamin concentration was positively correlated with total fat in milk samples, but no significant differences were observed in levels of retinol, alpha-tocopherol, or minerals based on whether or not lactating women were taking dietary supplements. CONCLUSIONS: Micronutrient contents of breast milk samples from Korean lactating women were comparable to those of other nations. Retinol and a-tocopherol levels were correlated and also with total fat in breast milk.
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