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Medium effects on the α-effect in DMSO-H2O mixtures - Comparative studies of p-nitrophenyl benzoate and acetate - Dissection of ground-state and transition-state effects
- Medium effects on the α-effect in DMSO-H2O mixtures - Comparative studies of p-nitrophenyl benzoate and acetate - Dissection of ground-state and transition-state effects
- Um I.-H.; Shin Y.-H.; Han J.-Y.; Buncel E.
- Ewha Authors
- SCOPUS Author ID
- Issue Date
- Journal Title
- Canadian Journal of Chemistry
- vol. 84, no. 11, pp. 1550 - 1556
- SCI; SCIE; SCOPUS
- In a study of the origin of the α-effect and its dependence on the nature of the reaction medium as well as structural effects, we report herein a kinetic study of the reactions of p-nitrophenyl benzoate (PNPB) with butan-2,3-dione monoximate (Ox-, α-nucleophile) and p-chlorophenoxide (p-ClPhO-, the reference nucleophile) in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)-H2O mixtures of varying compositions at 25.0 ± 0.1°C. The second-order rate constants (kN) decrease modestly on addition of DMSO to the medium up to 10 mol% DMSO but increase significantly beyond that point for both nucleophiles. Ox- is more reactive than p-ClPhO- in all solvent mixtures studied (i.e., the α-effect). The α-effect increases as the DMSO content in the medium increases up to 40 mol% DMSO and then decreases beyond that point resulting in a bell-shaped α-effect profile. The bell-shaped α-effect profile obtained for the current reaction is similar to that found previously for the corresponding reaction of p-nitrophenyl acetate (PNPA), differing notably however, in the magnitude of the α-effect beyond 40 mol% DMSO. The PNPB/p-ClPhO- reaction gains greater rate enhancement than the PNPA/p-ClPhO- reaction in the DMSO-rich region, resulting in the smaller α-effect for PNPB beyond 40 mol% DMSO. It is proposed that the observed modulation of the α-effect by the solvent medium is explicable as a ground-state effect in the H2O-rich region and a transition-state effect in the DMSO-rich region. © 2006 NRC.
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