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Solution processed WO 3 layer for the replacement of PEDOT:PSS layer in organic photovoltaic cells
- Solution processed WO 3 layer for the replacement of PEDOT:PSS layer in organic photovoltaic cells
- Choi H.; Kim B.; Ko M.J.; Lee D.-K.; Kim H.; Kim S.H.; Kim K.
- Ewha Authors
- SCOPUS Author ID
- Issue Date
- Journal Title
- Organic Electronics: physics, materials, applications
- vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 959 - 968
- SCI; SCIE; SCOPUS
- Tungsten oxide layer is formed uniformly by a sol-gel technique on top of indium tin oxide as a neutral and photo-stable hole extraction layer (HEL). The solution processed tungsten oxide layer (sWO 3) is fully characterized by UV-Vis, XPS, UPS, XRD, AFM, and TEM. Optical transmission of ITO/sWO 3 substrates is nearly identical to ITOs. In addition, the sWO 3 layer induces nearly ohmic contact to P3HT as PEDOT:PSS layer does, which is determined by UPS measurement. In case that an optimized thickness (∼10 nm) of the sWO 3 layer is incorporated in the organic photovoltaic devices (OPVs) with a structure of ITO/sWO 3/P3HT:PCBM/ Al, the power conversion efficiency (PCE) is 3.4%, comparable to that of devices utilizing PEDOT:PSS as HEL. Furthermore, the stability of OPV utilizing sWO 3 is significantly enhanced due to the air- and photo-stability of the sWO 3 layer itself. PCEs are decreased to 40% and 0% of initial values, when PEDOT:PSS layers are exposed to air and light for 192 h, respectively. In contrast, PCEs are maintained to 90% and 87% of initial PCEs respectively, when sWO 3 layers are exposed to the same conditions. Conclusively, we find that solution processed tungsten oxide layers can be prepared easily, act as an efficient hole extraction layer, and afford a much higher stability than PEDOT:PSS layers. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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