Objectives: The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the effects of different implant surface treatments on implant stability in dog mandibles. Material and Methods: A total of 30 implants (Dentium Co, Seoul, Korea) were placed in 5 dog mandibles. Bone quality was assessed at each site. Implant stability was evaluated using 2 different methods. An Osstell™ resonance frequency analyzer (RFA) was used to determine the stability at baseline (day 1), and 3, 6 and 10 weeks after surgery. Animals were euthanized 10 weeks after implant installation. Specimens were obtained and submitted to the laboratory processing. Sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin for histologic and histomorphometric analyses. All implantation sites in dog mandibles demonstrated bone types II and III. Results and Conclusions: All implants showed good primary stability at baseline in terms of insertion torque. The results of this study suggest that surface treatment may have significant effects on biological stability 3 weeks after implant placement. Further studies are needed to confirm these initial observations in poor quality bone.