Silk fibroin scaffolds were examined as a biomaterial option for tissue-engineered cartilage-like tissue. In tissue engineering for cartilage repair using a scaffold, initial chondrocyte-material interactions are important for the following cell behaviors. In this study, the surface of nanofibrous silk fibroin (NSF) meshes was modified by a microwave-induced argon plasma treatment in order to improve the cytocompatibility of the meshes used as cartilaginous grafts. In addition, the effects of a plasma treatment on the cellular behavior of chondrocytes on NSF were examined. The plasma treatment resulted in an increase in the hydrophilicity of NSF meshes suggesting that the cytocompatibility of the mesh might be improved. Furthermore, the human articular chondrocytes showed higher viability on the surface-modified NSF meshes. These results suggest that the surface modification of NSF meshes by plasma can enhance the cellular behavior of chondrocytes and may be used in tissue engineering.