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Intracellular pH-dependent peroxynitrite-evoked synergistic death of glucose-deprived astrocytes
- Intracellular pH-dependent peroxynitrite-evoked synergistic death of glucose-deprived astrocytes
- Ju C.; Oh Y.J.; Han B.H.; Kim H.-S.; Kim H.-C.; Kim W.-K.
- Ewha Authors
- 김원기; 김희선
- SCOPUS Author ID
- Issue Date
- Journal Title
- Free Radical Biology and Medicine
- vol. 37, no. 8, pp. 1160 - 1169
- SCI; SCIE; SCOPUS
- Previously, we reported that glucose-deprived astrocytes were highly vulnerable to peroxynitrite (ONOO -). Here we demonstrate that the increased vulnerability caused by glucose deprivation and ONOO - depends on intracellular pH. The ONOO - releasing reagent 3-morpholinosydnonimine (SIN-1) markedly induced the release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, the marker of cytotoxicity) in glucose-deprived astrocytes. Morphological studies and caspase activity assay showed that astrocytes treated together with glucose deprivation and ONOO - died mostly in a necrotic mode. Alkalinization of pH from 7.4 to 7.8 increased LDH release, whereas acidification from pH 7.4 to 7.0 decreased it. However, intracellular pH (pH i), not extracellular pH (pH e), appeared to play a critical role in the synergistic death. Thus, without a change in pH e (7.4) cytosolic acidification by a weak acid salt, sodium acetate, and a Na +/H + antiporter inhibitor, amiloride, reduced LDH release. In contrast, a weak base, NH 4Cl, and a Na +/H + antiporter stimulator, monensin, increased pH i and greatly enhanced LDH release. The augmented death was found to be due, in part, to the preceding decrease in the level of reduced glutathione, the ONOO - scavenger, and collapse of the mitochondrial transmembrane potential at alkaline pH. © 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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