The healing of stroma and endothelium after a standardized corneal alkali wound was evaluated in sodium-hyaluronan (Na-HA)-treated eyes. Alkali wounds were produced in one eye of each rabbit by applying a 5.5-mm round filter paper soaked in 1 N NaOH onto the central cornea for 60 s. Eyes were then treated with either 1% Na-HA (the treatment group) or phosphate-buffered saline (the control group) 4 times per day for 3 weeks. Endothelial wound morphometry was performed after alizarin red and trypan blue staining, while stromal healing was assessed by counting polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and keratocytes in the central and marginal wound areas. During the early healing period the stroma treated with Na-HA had less PMNs than that of the control group. The size of the endothelial defect area measured 5 days after injury was significantly smaller in the Na-HA group than in the control corneas. The present findings indicate that topically applied 1% Na-HA affects stromal and endothelial healing during the early repair process after corneal alkali wounds.