The purpose of this study was: (1) to determine the prevalence of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) after the use of a mechanical compression device only, without pharmacological thromboprophylaxis; (2) to investigate the factors associated with DVT; and (3) to investigate the natural course of DVT and PE. We reviewed consecutive series of 874 patients (1434 knees) who received treatment with a mechanical compression device only for prevention of DVT after primary TKA. The prevalence of DVT was 6.6% (94 of 1434 knees). Proximal thrombi were found in 6 of 1434 knees (0.4%). No patient had PE on perfusion lung scans. Further sonograms and venograms for the patients with thrombi at 6 months after the operation revealed that all thrombi were resolved. (C) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.