The primary purpose of the study was to investigate team-based e-Learning content development projects from the perspective of the shared mental model (SMM) theory. The researcher conducted a study of 79 e-Learning content development teams in Korea to examine the relationship between taskwork and teamwork SMMs and the performance of the teams. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to analyze the parameter estimations. As hypothesized, the results indicated that interaction among e-Learning ID team members led to higher SMMs (Ed- this acronym has already been defined above) which in turn improved the team performance. Meanwhile, the interaction decreased with the progression of ID projects and with the role differentiation. The implications of the findings and directions for instructional design (ID) practices are discussed.