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3차원 스캐너를 이용한 사람 노뼈 거친면의 형태분석 연구

Title
3차원 스캐너를 이용한 사람 노뼈 거친면의 형태분석 연구
Other Titles
Morphometric Study on the Human Radial Tuberosity with a Structured-Light 3D Scanning System : an anthropological perspective
Authors
정고운
Issue Date
2016
Department/Major
대학원 의과학과
Publisher
이화여자대학교 대학원
Degree
Master
Advisors
한후재한기환
Abstract
본 연구의 목적은 조선시대와 현대인의 노뼈 거친면(radial tuberosity)의 모양(shape)을 형태분석(morphometric analysis)하고, 분석한 결과를 수치화(quantification)한 후 인류학적 관점에서 비교하여, 과거 특정 집단의 삶을 고증하는 것이다. 이를 위해, 구조광(structured-light) 3차원 스캐너(High Definition Imaging advance 3D scanner) (LMI technologies, Vancouver, Canada)를 이용해 분석을 위한 뼈 표면 이미지 정보의 손실을 최소화 하였고, 3차원 계측 도구들, MeshLab v.1.3.3(ISTI-CNR, Italy) - Mathematica 10.0 (Wolfram Research Inc.) - Morpho J v.1.06(C.P, Klingenberg, UK)을 사용하여 연구를 수행하였다. 이 때, 기존의 ‘전통적’ ‘계측 분석(metric analysis)’에서 벗어나 표지점(landmark)및 형태 윤곽(outline)에 기반해, 주성분 분석(principal component analysis), 프로크로스테스 겹치기 기법(Procrustes superimposition technique)을 적용하여, 형태를 분석하였다. 시대와 성별에 따라 네 그룹으로 구분된(조선시대 남자, 조선시대 여자, 현대 남자, 현대 여자) 노뼈 거친면(radial tuberosity)을, 최종적으로 정준 변량 분석(canonical variates analysis)한 후 근현대(18세기 조선시대)에서 현대로 넘어오면서 달라진 여성과 남성의 일상 생활 활동(daily activity living)의 변화, 특히 상지(upper limb)를 이용한 노동 활동의 변화에 대해 고찰하고자 하였다. 분석의 결과, 조선시대 여성의 경우 다른 집단에 비해 위팔두갈래근(biceps brachii)의 활동이 두드러졌다. 이와 같은 사실은, 풍속화와 조선시대 가사노동의 성별분업 연구에 의해 뒷받침 되는데, 관련 연구들을 통해 조선시대에는 위팔두갈래근(biceps brachii)이 반복적으로 사용되었던 여성 고유의 물적 생산 활동이 있었다는 사실을 확인 할 수 있었다. 조선시대에는 곡식과 직물을 세금으로 받았는데, 직물 생산, 즉 직조활동은, 지위고하를 막론하고 조선사회에서 전 계급의 여성들에게 전담되었던 노동 영역이었다. 본 연구를 통해 뼈의 형태분석 연구 수행 시 3D 스캐너의 활용 가능성을 확인할 수 있었을 뿐만 아니라, 베틀을 이용한 직조활동 중 유발되는 위팔의 움직임이, 오랜 시간 동안 지속되었을 조선시대 여성들의 위팔두갈래근(biceps brachii) 활동 소견을 지지함으로써 뼈의 형태분석으로 과거 특정 집단의 생활상을 고증해 볼 수 있었다.;Various activity-induced changes produced by habitual or occupational activity have caused different morphology types to appear on the bone surface. Therefore, the external bone architecture affected by certain human behaviors can be interpreted in a cultural and histological context. The biceps brachii muscle is mainly involved in the movement of the forearm. Thus, the muscle is essential for the function of the upper limb while lifting objects as part of the activities of daily living. The radial tuberosity as the insertion point facilitates the supination movement of biceps brachii and flexion force. Therefore, the morphological dimorphic shape variance of the radial tuberosity induced by the biceps brachii could naturally contribute to morphological differences. Hence, the purpose of this study is to ascertain information about the lives of specific groups in the past by conducting morphometric analyses of the radial tuberosity shapes of people in the Joseon Dynasty and those of contemporary people, carrying out quantification of the morphometric differences, and comparing the data from the anthropological perspective. In this study, we used 84 three-dimensional (3D) scanned right radial tuberosity classified into four groups (21 Joseon Dynasty male, 21 Joseon Dynasty female, 21 contemporary male, and 21 contemporary female) acquired by a structured-light 3D scanner (High Definition Imaging advance 3D scanner) (LMI technologies, Vancouver, Canada) for minimizing the loss of external surface data. Beyond the existing traditional metric analysis, the shape of data were analyzed by conducting principal component analysis and canonical variates analysis based on Procrustes coordinates with a high percentage of variance with the landmark and outline data of radial tuberosity. Then, we attempted to anthropological study on the changes in daily living activity of male and female from the modern (18th century of Joseon Dynasty) to contemporary age, especially in labor activities using the upper limb. Consequently, it was estimated that female in the Joseon Dynasty period had exceptional biceps brachii activities compared to the other groups. This is supported by genre painting and research on the gender division of housework. Through the corresponding research, we confirmed that there were physical activities of only women that were carried out using their biceps brachii repeatedly in the Joseon Dynasty period. Grains and textile were only two types of material accepted as taxes in the Joseon Dynasty period. Textile production (i.e., weaving activity) was a women-only labor area that was carried out by all women regardless of their status. The movement of the upper arm performing during the weaving activities using the loom is concluded to be the repetitious biceps brachii activity of the women in the Joseon Dynasty that lasted for a long period of time. The study also demonstrate the application of 3D scanning to the human bone for a morphometric analysis in an anthropological context.
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