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高麗 顯宗代 景靈殿 설치와 그 의미

Title
高麗 顯宗代 景靈殿 설치와 그 의미
Other Titles
Installation and Meaning of Gyeongryeongjeon during King Hyeonjong Era, Koryeo Dynasty
Authors
유희경
Issue Date
2016
Department/Major
대학원 사학과
Publisher
이화여자대학교 대학원
Degree
Master
Advisors
김영미
Abstract
In this study, Kyeongreongjeon(景靈殿) having been built during the period from 11th year (1020) of King Hyeonjong(顯宗) to 12th year(1021) and its meaning were observed. It was classified as a great shrine among Gilye(吉禮). And Kyeongreongjeon was consisted of 5 rooms that were individually different in the same shrine and it enshrined royal portraits of direct lineal 4 ancestors of King Taejo(太祖) and Hyeonjong as the original tomb that is 2nd royal private ancestral shrine located at the northwestern side of the palace. King Hyeonjong was born as an illegitimate child between Wangwook(王郁) who was a son of King Taejo and Queen Heonjeong who was a wife of King Kyeongjong(景宗) and crowned by the coup d'etat of Kang-jo(康兆) and under this background, he lacked legitimacy in a process of birth and accession. Furthermore, right after accession, King Hyeonjong had taken refuge to Naju in the wake of invasion from Qidan and as palaces and ancestor's shrine in Gaekyeong were burnt down, authority of King Hyeonjong was plunged. And as he arranged national ritual based on Confucian, political ideology during King Seongjong(成宗) era, he had to integrate the society considering public rejection for the native customs and manners being disappeared by abolishing Palgwanhoi and Yeondeunghoi. Coming back to Gaegyeong after the war was over, King Hyeonjong faced with a problem of having to enshrining Anjong in ancestral shrine but only Mokjong was permitted to be enshrined as ancestral king. There was a precedent case of king Seongjong that Daejong as a real father was enshrined at ancestral shrine but Anjong was unable to be enshrined at Jongmyo as he was a sinner of being involved in scandalous affair. And so, King Hyeonjong showed concern over Wonmyo(原廟) of China as a new ritual site where Anjong(安宗) could be enshrined. At that time, Kingdom Song was shattered by defeat in a war with Qidan. In order to overcome this defeat and recover royal authority, King Jinjong(眞宗) utilized Taoism by fabricating a fable of Cheonseo(天書) advent and advent of Cho family progenitor of royal family. And so, King Jinjong enshrined royal portrait of Seongjo(聖祖) by carrying out Bonseon(封禪) in Taesan(泰山) and building Kyeongryeonggueng(景靈宮) as The Taoist temple at the place where Seongjo was descended. King Hyeonjong tried to solve enshrining problem of Anjong by accommodating Gyeongryonggueng rite of Song of which historical situation was similar to that of Koryeo Dynasty. And so, Gyeongryeonggeung and Gyeongryeongjeon had something in common that both those two enshrined real portrait of ancestors of kings and the king personally attended the rite and served Sochan(素饌) as ritual food by having a status as Taemyo(太廟). While Jinjong tried to win public popularity and establish royal dignity as an emperor by capitalizing on Taoism that was a dominant religion during Kingdom Song as national rite, King Hyeonjong reflected Buddhism and native religion that were widely worshipped during Koryeo era. And so, while Gyeongreonggeung of Song had a nature of Taoism, Gyeongryongjeon of Koryeo had a buddhistic element. And while Gyeongryeonggeung built a separate shrine whenever enshrining a new king, Gyeongryeongjeon enshrined only Taejo and direct lineal 4 ancestors by composing 5 rooms having different room in the same shrine. Contrary to Taemyo that was operated based on ancestral kings, Gyeongryeongjeon followed operation form of ancestral shrine in Shilla and early Koryeo era by operating shrine based on Omyoje(五廟制) enshrining direct lineal ancestors. King Hyeonjong enshrined his father at Gyeongryeongjeon and raised divinity and authority of his father by establishing Hyeonhwasa(玄化寺) that was Jingeon shrine of Anjong and queen Heonjeong, his mother. By this, he could arrange national regime as his own legitimacy was strengthened and royal authority was recovered as well.;본 논문에서는 顯宗 11년(1020)~현종 12년(1021) 사이 景靈殿의 설치와 그 의미에 대해 살펴보았다. 경령전은 吉禮 중 大祀로 분류되었다. 그리고 제2의 종묘인 原廟로써 태조와 현왕의 직계 4대조의 御容을 봉안하였으며 同堂異室의 5실로 구성되어 궁궐의 서북쪽에 세워졌다. 현종은 태조의 아들인 王郁과 景宗의 비였던 獻貞王后의 사통으로 태어나 康兆의 정변으로 즉위하게 되어 출생과 즉위과정에 정통성이 부족하였다. 게다가 현종은 즉위 직후 거란의 침략을 받아 나주까지 피난하였고, 개경이 함락당하여 궁궐과 태묘가 불에 타면서 권위가 추락하였다. 그리고 成宗代에 유교정치이념으로 국가의례를 정비하면서 팔관회와 연등회 등을 폐지하여 우리 고유의 이른바 토풍이 사라진 것에 대한 반발이 있었던 것을 고려하여 사회를 통합해야 할 필요가 있었다. 현종은 전란이 끝나 개경에 돌아온 후 부친인 안종을 종묘에 ?廟해야 하는 문제에 부딪쳤으나, 先王이었던 목종만 부묘할 수 있었다. 이미 親父인 대종을 종묘에 부묘했던 성종의 선례가 있었지만 안종은 불미스러운 일에 연루된 죄인이었기 때문에 종묘에 모실 수 없었던 것이다. 그래서 현종은 안종을 부묘할 수 있는 새로운 제사시설로 중국의 原廟에 관심을 가졌다. 당시 宋은 고려와 마찬가지로 거란과 전쟁에서 실질적으로 패배해 충격에 빠져있었다. 진종은 이를 극복하고 왕권을 회복하기 위해 天書 강림과 송 황실 趙氏의 시조 강림 설화를 만들어내는 데에 도교를 활용하였다. 그래서 진종은 泰山에서 봉선을 행하고, 聖祖가 강림한 곳에 道觀인 景靈宮을 세워 성조의 像을 봉안하였다. 현종은 고려와 시대적 상황이 비슷했던 송의 경령궁제를 수용하여 안종의 부묘문제를 해결하려 하였다. 그래서 경령궁과 경령전은 국왕 선조의 眞影을 봉안하며, 왕이 종묘의 예로서 親祭하여 태묘와 같은 위상을 지니고, 제수로 素饌을 사용한다는 공통점을 지닌다. 진종이 송의 지배적인 종교인 도교를 국가제사에 이용하여 민심을 얻고 황제로서의 권위를 세우려 했다면, 현종은 고려에서 널리 신앙되던 불교와 토착신앙을 반영하였다. 그래서 송의 경령궁이 도교적 성격을 갖고 있었던 반면 고려의 경령전은 불교적인 요소를 가진다. 그리고 경령궁은 새로운 왕을 봉안할 때마다 별도의 殿을 지었던 데 반해, 경령전은 同堂異室의 5실로 구성되어 태조와 직계 4대친 만을 모셨다. 경령전이 先王 중심으로 운영되었던 태묘와 달리 직계 중심의 오묘제로 운영된 것은 신라와 고려 초기 종묘의 운영형태를 따른 것이다. 현종은 경령전을 설치하여 아버지 안종을 봉안하고, 안종과 어머니 헌정왕후의 진전사원인 현화사를 창건하여 부모의 신성성과 권위를 높였다. 그로 인해 현종 자신의 정통성도 강화되었으며 왕권도 회복되어 체제를 정비할 수 있었다.
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