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플립드 클래스룸을 적용한 영어수업이 학업성취도와 영어자기효능감에 미치는 효과

Title
플립드 클래스룸을 적용한 영어수업이 학업성취도와 영어자기효능감에 미치는 효과
Other Titles
The Effect of Flipped classroom on Academic Achievement and Self-efficacy in English
Authors
문지윤
Issue Date
2016
Department/Major
대학원 교육공학과
Publisher
이화여자대학교 대학원
Degree
Master
Advisors
이정민
Abstract
The drastic pace of change in technology is creating not only opportunities but challenges for schools. As education is moving into the digital age, paradigm of pedagogies have changed to figure out more effective, sagacious way for the younger generation. There have been a number of kinds of methods from blended learning, simulation-based, face-to-face and some other combination of virtual learning to engage the digital technologies. The learners of this age grow up with Internet access, Google, YouTube, and many other digital resources could also be their school. Like information, education could be everywhere, and learning and teaching does not occur only in school with books and text. The idea comes up from the outside of the classroom; by delivering lecture, learning content through online. In the class, teachers have focused on class activities which can be done by students themselves to make learning itself more meaningful. It moves activities, including those that may have traditionally been considered homework, into the classroom. Flipped learning happens when students watch online lectures beforehand. They previously learn the content first, and then collaborate in discussions, carry out research, engage in concepts in the classroom with the help of the teacher. It is regarded as a quite new concept of learning approach or strategies, thus, several studies are on going to prove its effectiveness and contribution in detail. In this study, academic achievement and self-efficay have been selected as major variables to find out the learning outcome of flipped learning in two different domain: one for cognitive result and the other for psychological point of view. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the the effect of flipped classroom on academic achievement and self-efficacy in English. By adopting flipped learning approach, a teacher change their class into flipped classroom format and the use of it was the independent variable of this experiment(experimental group: flipped classroom; comparison group: lecture-centered, traditional way), while academic achievement and self-efficacy in English were dependent variables. The subcategories of academic achievement were communicative skills and literacy skills and subcategories of self-efficacy were four skills of language-listening, speaking, reading and writing. The study results will provide implications for flipped learning as well as class design in practical use. By reflecting such study objectives, detailed study questions to be answered in this study are as follows, 1. Are there any differences in academic achievement (communicative skills and literacy skills) between flipped classroom group and traditional lecture-centered learning group? 2. Are there any differences in self-efficacy in English (listening, speaking, reading, writing) between flipped classroom group and traditional lecture-centered learning group? To figure out these questions, the experiment was conducted in a classroom field setting and participants were randomly assigned to a treatment group (TG) or a control group (CG). Eighty learners(TG: 40, CG: 40) from a middle school located in seoul, Korea were chosen through convenient sampling. Prior to the experiment, researchers confirmed the homogeneity of the two groups in terms of prior level of academic emotions as well as prior knowledge, which means that there were no significant differences in both dependent variables between experimental and comparison groups. For the procedure, learners were provided with orientation session about flipped learning and flipped classroom. Preparation for preview and guide was given such as the online website for administering and taking the online lecture. Each group participated in the intervention for 2 months, respectively. The treatment group’s learning environment was a reversal of traditional teaching: students gain first exposure to their learning content and class goal outside of class and then class time is used to do the harder work of assimilating that knowledge through strategies such as problem-solving, discussion or debates. The control group provided the same amount of learning but they learned most of learning material in class first, usually via reading or texted handout and then do their rest of work at home. Lastly, for the follow-up, the interviews. For the assessment, two measurement instruments were used. First, in order to measure academic achievement, teachers adopted performance test(60%) and end-of-chapter tests; Final examination including multiple choice questions and open-ended questions(40%). Second, self-efficacy in English Questionnaire developed by Cubillos and Ilvento(2012) was used to measure learners’ psychological statement. A four-part questionnaire was distributed for self-efficacy in English: listening, speaking, reading and writing(see Appendix). For survey, questions like ‘When reading, I can figure out the main topic or gist’, ‘When writing, I can give supporting details and explanations.‘. When listening, I can use the information heard in English to accomplish a task in real life (e.g., understand announcements in a train station, follow directions to an unknown address, etc.) were included. All test items were validated by performed Cronbach’s α test on each section(listening, speaking, reading and writing) and the results were α=.78 for listening skill, α=.85 for spaeking, reading was α=.90, and writing was α=.76, respectively. The data were analyzed using independent sample t-test and MANOVA. From the results of data, mean and standard deviations of academic achievement(communicative skill and literacy skill) and self-efficacy were calculated to investigate the general tendency of the collected data. Except for the academic achievement, four sub-categories of self-efficacy was measured with the five-point Likert response scale. There is a significant difference between the comparison group and the experimental group in communicative skill. Means for academic achievement in experimental group recorded 25.37 while comparison group recorded 23.94(p<.05). There is no significant difference in literacy skill between the comparison group and the experimental group(p>.05). Standard deviation of experimental group was higher than comparison group. For self-efficacy in English, significant univariate effects were found on each part of self-efficacy in English and the result revealed that the score of the experiment group was higher than those of control group in the case of speaking and reading. However, listening and writing didn't showed significant result. In conclusion, the findings show that the adoption of flipped classroom brings an increase in academic achievement, especially communicative skill including listening and speaking compared to the lecture-centered class. Moreover, the result related to self-efficacy in English showed that the mean of flipped classroom group recorded higher than that of control group in the case of speaking and reading. Standard deviation represents the variability in values, thus, the data also revealed that there is a wide variation in experiment group student. This gap between experiment group members was observed in academic achievement and it is possible to assume that flipped learning is one of the major causes that makes different learning outcome. The results implied that the adoption of flipped classroom enabled to create positive result in communication skill. First, English can be used during in-class periods by group, thus, communication strategies are frequently used that learners employ to prevent communication breakdown they may experience. Their effort may help each other to use and understand the target language, which brings about the participation and responsibility in learning language. In the perspective of self-efficacy, speaking and reading was significantly effective through flipped classroom and it is explained by constructivism in language learning. According to the principle of contructivism, holistic experience is emphasized that includes content and authenticity in language classes or project instruction. Acquiring foreign language will be effective in authentic and complex learning environment or situation and group or task based classroom activities provide more chance to learn language with proper condition. Several research issues that are deserved to be investigated in the future are suggested: First, the size of sample was quite small; eighty middle school students took the class in a short period which requires caution for generalizing the results. Second, The flipped classroom is depend on the course design by instructor, thus, the generalization of the experiment for flipped classroom should be carefully considered since all the school situation, culture, class activities, learning goals and learning styles can be different in other place. Third, the instrument for measuring academic achievement could be not reliable in that the subjectivity of performance test for speaking and writing. Even though suitable criteria were developed and peer evaluation was adopted for fair judgement, no one could be sure for the perfect measure of academic achievement. Follow-up studies need to further explore for psychological variables such as motivation, anxiety, and attitude that connects to participation as well as durability in language learning. This study describes the process of implementing the flipped class for middle school in Korea, however, more data is needed to differentiate age and learning circumstances. Therefore, it is necessary to widely adopted from higher level learners in college to the early stage of language learners including childhood. The learning content, organization and structure of class activities, types of in-class activity and every other conditions could be an independent variable that can changes the result of study. Most of all, the key player of the flipped learning is instructors themselves, thus, it could be meaningful to analyze effective teaching skills and class interaction.;최근 정보기술이 발전함에 따라 교육 자원은 누구나 창조할 수 있고 누구나 사용될 수 있다는 인식이 생겼다. 또 다양한 매체를 통해 얼마든지 지식을 습득할 수 있게 되었으며 학습 환경 또한 시간과 장소에 구애받지 않는 유연성이 갖추어졌다. 이에 따라 지식의 단순한 전달과 연습 위주의 지식 습득은 미래 세대의 인재가 갖추어야 할 능력을 길러주지 못하게 되었으며 자기주도적 문제해결능력과 창의력을 요구하는 미래 시대에 더 이상 적합하지 않게 되었다. 이러한 문제를 해결하기 위해 플립드 러닝이 새로운 교수·학습 방법의 대안으로 제시되었고 그 효과성이 검증되면서 주목받고 있다. 플립드 러닝이란 전통적 교수방법의 순서를 뒤집어 과거 학교에서 수업을 듣고 학습한 내용을 바탕으로 집에서 과제를 하던 순서를 뒤집어 인터넷 등 정보통신기술을 활용, 사전 선행학습을 진행한 후 교사와의 교실 내 면대면 수업을 실시하는 것으로 학습자 활동 중심의 고차원적 사고 능력을 함양하고 협동학습의 형태를 수업시간에 적용, 그 장점을 활용할 수 있으며 개별화 및 완전 학습, 상호작용의 증대와 문제 해결 학습 중심의 학습자 중심 교육이 일어나도록 한다는 특징이 있다. 이와 관련하여 교육계의 주목을 받으며 관련된 학습 효과성을 검증하는 다양한 연구가 진행되고 있으며 대학부터 초·중등학교에 걸쳐 전 과목에서 플립드 러닝 기반 학습의 적용이 시도되고 있다. 학업성취도와 각종 정의적 영역의 변인에서 긍정적 효과가 보고되고 있지만(Gilboy, Heinerichs, & Pazzaglia, 2014), 과목, 수업 환경, 피험자의 연령 등 실험에 영향을 주는 요소에 따라 동일한 효과를 기대할 수 있을 것인가에 대한 심층적 논의가 필요하다. 본 연구는 플립드 클래스룸 활용 수업을 활용하는 교수·학습 방법의 변화가 학습자들의 인지적·정의적 측면에 어떠한 학습효과를 가져올 수 있을지 검증하고자 한다. 이에 인지적 영역에 해당하는 종속변인으로 말하기·듣기 능력과 관련된 의사소통 기능을 측정하였으며 읽기와 쓰기 능력은 문해능력으로 보고 학업성취도에 어떠한 차이를 가져오는가에 대해 탐색하였다. 또 정의적 영역에 해당하는 종속변인으로 듣기·말하기·읽기와 쓰기의 각 영역별 영어에 대한 자기효능감을 측정, 플립드 클래스룸을 활용한 교수·학습 방법이 기존의 전통적 방법과 달리 학습자에게 어떠한 차이를 보이는지 확인하고 플립드 러닝의 가치에 대하여 탐색해보고자 한다. 이를 위해 본 연구에서 제기한 연구문제는 다음과 같다. 1. 플립드 클래스룸 수업을 제공받은 집단과 교사 주도의 일반식 수업을 제공받은 두 집단 간 학습자들의 학업성취도는 차이를 보이는가? 1-1. 말하기·듣기 기능과 관련된 의사소통 능력(communication skill)에 있어, 플립드 클래스룸 수업을 제공받은 집단과 교사 주도의 일반식 수업을 제공받은 두 집단 간 학습자들의 학업성취도 차이가 유의하게 나타나는가? 1-2. 읽기·쓰기 기능과 관련된 문해 능력(literacy skill)에 있어, 플립드 클래스룸 수업을 제공받은 집단과 교사 주도의 일반식 수업을 제공받은 두 집단 간 학습자들의 학업성취도 차이가 유의하게 나타나는가? 2. 플립드 클래스룸 수업을 제공받은 집단과 교사 주도의 일반식 수업을 제공받은 두 집단 간 학습자들의 영어자기효능감은 차이를 보이는가? 2-1. 듣기 영역의 영어자기효능감에 있어, 플립드 클래스룸 수업을 제공받은 집단과 교사 주도의 일반식 수업을 제공받은 두 집단 간 학습자들의 차이가 유의하게 나타나는가? 2-2. 말하기 영역의 영어자기효능감에 있어, 플립드 클래스룸 수업을 제공받은 집단과 교사 주도의 일반식 수업을 제공받은 두 집단 간 학습자들의 차이가 유의하게 나타나는가? 2-3. 읽기 영역의 영어자기효능감에 있어, 플립드 클래스룸 수업을 제공받은 집단과 교사 주도의 일반식 수업을 제공받은 두 집단 간 학습자들의 차이가 유의하게 나타나는가? 2-4. 쓰기 영역의 영어자기효능감에 있어, 플립드 클래스룸 수업을 제공받은 집단과 교사 주도의 일반식 수업을 제공받은 두 집단 간 학습자들의 차이가 유의하게 나타나는가? 본 연구문제를 확인하기 위하여 서울시에 위치한 E 중학교 2학년 학생 80명을 대상으로 연구를 실시하였다. 표집된 자료는 두 독립표본 t검정(two independent samples t test)와 다변량분산분석(multivariate Analysis of Variance: MAVOVA)을 실시하였다. 연구에 앞서 다변량분석을 위한 기본 가정을 충족하기 위해 실험집단과 비교집단의 동질성을 확인하고 사전사후 점수의 차이에 대해 두 독립표본 t 검정을 실시하여 통계적 분석을 실시하였다. 연구문제에 따른 주요 연구 결과와 논의는 다음과 같다. 첫째, 본 연구에서 플립드 클래스룸 수업을 받은 학생들의 학업성취도 점수 중 말하기와 듣기 영역에 해당되는 의사소통 능력이 향상되었다. 둘째, 플립드 클래스룸 수업을 받은 집단의 영어자기효능감 중 말하기와 읽기 영역에 대한 하위요인에서 향상된 것을 확인하였다. 셋째, 플립드 클래스룸을 제공받은 학생들 간의 표준편차가 일반적 강의식 수업을 제공받은 학생들보다 컸으며, 이는 학업성취도 뿐만 아니라 영어자기효능감의 모든 영역에서 동일한 결과가 나왔다. 본 연구의 결론을 바탕으로 한 후속연구에 대한 제언은 다음과 같다. 첫째, 플립드 클래스룸의 도입은 외국어 일부 영역의 학습에 효과적이었다는 결과가 도출되었으나 이와 같은 결과를 모든 학습자에게 일반화하여 성급히 도입하기보다는 학습자 특성과 수준 및 학습자 요구를 잘 파악하여 도입하여야 한다. 둘째, 실험 기간, 교사 영향, 학습자 집단의 나이와 과목 등 실험 상황과 변수에 따른 결과를 지속적인 후속 연구를 통해 파악하여야 한다. 특히 정의적 영역의 변인은 자기효능감 외에도 다양하며, 관련 변인들의 복합적이고 총체적인 상관관계와 구조적 관계를 파악할 수 있는 후속 연구가 필요하다고 본다. 모든 학습 관련 요소들을 종합적으로 고려한 연구 설계로 플립드 클래스룸 수업의 효과성에 대한 변인 간의 구조를 검증하는 후속 연구가 지속적으로 이루어진다면 플립드 클래스룸을 보다 체계적이고 효과적으로 수업에 활용할 수 있는 지침이 될 것이다.
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