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月沙 李廷龜의 漢詩文學 硏究

Title
月沙 李廷龜의 漢詩文學 硏究
Other Titles
Research on sino-Korean Poetry by Lee, Jeonggu
Authors
손여임
Issue Date
2015
Department/Major
대학원 국어국문학과
Publisher
이화여자대학교 대학원
Degree
Doctor
Advisors
김동준
Abstract
Wolsa (Lee, Jeonggu; 1564~1635) was not only a great poet but his words were so powerful and influential that he served as a liaison between Korea (Joseon Dynasty) and China (Ming Dynasty). Despite the turmoil that the dynasty was undergoing, his poems signified the unyielding spirit of scholars and writers that were determined to be resilient. Wolsa created poetry of balance and tolerance that guided him on a path that overcame the harsh realities of difficult times. The purpose of this thesis is to examine the suggestive meanings and significance of Wolsa's poetry. To do this, the thesis is divided in the order of the following manner: First, to understand the background of his poetry; by shedding light into his life, attitude, direction of literature, and assessments of his work during and after his time, the thesis aims to trace back Wolsa's work to gain an even deeper understanding of his poetry. Next, the third and fourth part of the thesis portrays the categories and aspects of his poetry. Furthermore, a conclusion on the significance of his poetry is made. Wolsa lived the life of a diplomat and a poet during his era of turmoil. He entered a position as a board member of the dynasty at a tender age through his influential writing, and he dedicated his entire life as a government official and a poet. His life mission was to use his pen to make the dynasty shine and righteously serve the king. Wolsa trained himself to compose beautiful poetry, while dedicating his time to studying, researching different books, and gaining all needed knowledge. He learned and practiced the Chinese language. He was also always very careful that his ideas and writing did not lean towards one extreme and maintained a good balance. The accumulated knowledge and skills that he built over the years served as a solid foundation later when he became a diplomatic liaison between the two dynasties. Despite these challenging times, he continuously composed poetry and his work was greatly admired and respected by many, paving the path for him to live a relatively comfortable life as a poet and a government official. The inspiration of his literature was a poet and a diplomat who supported his kingdom, while making others respect and admire the country. While he was still living, he edited his poems. There was an order that he chose in placing his work among his poems. His works that drew from his role as a diplomat were placed in the beginning, while all other works were put towards the back of the book. This supports the assumption that he wanted to be remembered as a diplomat and a poet who devoted his life for his kingdom during difficult times. This is also in alignment with his accomplishment as a poet, and his book serves as a principle in understanding his poetry. Therefore, the thesis utilized the order and structure of his poetry book as a method in understanding his poems. Wolsa's poetry book is divided into poems that he composed while serving his duty as a diplomat, and poems of his everyday life. In other words, some of his poems such as Sahang Poetry and Jeopban Poetry were created when he was undergoing his service as a diplomatic liaison. And other poems were written when he was not undergoing his diplomatic duty and writing about everyday issues. From Sahang Poetry and Jeopban Poetry, his pride as an accomplished poet is reflected in his work. It also shows his strong determination to righteously assist the king and the kingdom as a government official. In particular, his Sahang Poetry was composed during times of turmoil when the Ming Dynasty was falling apart. Politically, the Ming Dynasty in the later years was going through many divisions and disputes as the new era of the Jin Dynasty was approaching. Wolsa's poems reflect the subtle changes of his feelings towards the Ming Dynasty and a sense of alienation towards the Jin Dynasty. From his Jeopban Poetry, the changes in politics and diplomatic situations are portrayed. For example, his political views are far more frequently exposed, such as his hope to save the collapsing Ming Dynasty and determination to punish the Jin Dynasty. Also, after the Imjin War(Japanese Invasions of Korea), the diplomatic balance between the Joseon Dynasty and the Ming Dynasty was in severe misalignment, which created partial situations between the two dynasties. These changes can be noted from his Jeopban poems. In these poems, he far more frequently concentrates on the beauty of nature, and instead of realistically portraying nature, he often compares sceneries to those of China or an imaginary place in his mind. The reason he beautifies the sceneries that are largely ruined by the war is interpreted as his efforts to ease the minds of foreign envoys he is with on duty and to build solid diplomatic relationships with them. The poems of his everyday life can be divided into two: Poems he composed while enduring trials under the reign of Gwanghaegun, and other poems that he wrote as a government official. As a poet and an official, he utilized his poems to advise and encourage his fellow and junior officers. His poetry was also used to promote missions and projects of the kingdom, as well as to maintain friendships with his fellow scholars. His poems were not only closely connected to his everyday life, but he also utilized them to fulfill purposes he had. However, his poetry was not only a medium for his accomplishments. Joy, leisure of life, and pleasure were also some of the key materials for his poetry. And when he was ousted from office, he composed poems to console and comfort his comrades who suffered similar political ordeals as him. A part of him wanted to leave everything and live in nature as a free person. However, another part of him lit his ambition to rise to the occasion and make changes to the world. The conflicts in his mind and his worries for political turmoil became important topics and inspirations for his work. Traveling as an envoy, welcoming and replying to foreign envoys, and everyday life as an official are important sources of his poetry. The true value of poetry lies beyond sources or topics of work. Rather, it becomes radiant through his complete control and balance over the materials he writes about. Therefore, the thesis sheds light on the characteristics of Wolsa's poetry by dividing the fundamental bases into three categories: method of expressing his determination to awake and educate people, controling his emotions during a time of crisis, and portraying personal and social conflicts through his poems. Ambition and confidence are two of the most crucial materials as well as the fundamental background of his world of poetry. What is unique about his poetry is that all of his senses are exposed through his 'brave spirit(豪氣)'. And to Wolsa, the braveness of spirit also means changing and adapting to environments. In other words, the meaning of a brave spirit is not limited to being courageous and gallant, but also peaceful, relaxed and maintaining a pure soul. Therefore, from his poems that represent a brave spirit, both courage and generosity co-exist. High spirits are mostly reflected from his poems that he composed during his duty as a envoy. He composed lively and gallant poems when he had to show his dignity and pride to his fellow and foreign envoys in such situations as, being overwhelmed by powerful nature, or when faced with hardship and obstacles during his duty. He expressed courage as a representing poet, as well as an envoy who needed to be prepared for any and all situations. In times of trouble, he encouraged and comforted his fellow envoys and subordinates with poems filled with pride and dignity for his country. The words he used were strong yet sensitive, beautifully expressing calm and gallant characteristics of the poet. When he had feelings of unease and agony while serving his duty, he chose lively and gallant words in his poems. When he felt as if he were being biased, he composed more embracing poems. In other words, when he thought he should be more tolerant and harmonious with others, or when things did not go as he had planned, he turned to brighter and positive expressions, embracing others and harmoniously adapting to his surroundings. The most important factor of Wolsa's poems is a flexible control of emotions. This was the basis of his role as a superior diplomat, as well as a poet. In particular, he had the ability to comfortably adapt to situations in times of trouble. He carefully controlled and balanced his words on the basis of a foreign envoy's attitude or emotion. Therefore, in most of his poems, he utilized his poetry to maintain a close relationship between countries. As such, prevailing poems are amicable, however, when faced with diplomatically improper foreign envoys, he would compose poems that seemed peaceful on the surface but had underlying meaning that reflected his true feelings. One of the most significant beauties of Wolsa's poems is that although he was situated in the core of a political crisis, he tried to maintain peace and tolerance as he served as a diplomatic figure. Even in the poems that reflect his personal agonies and challenges, his calm and peaceful state of mind are reflected. He also dedicated his poems to encourage his fellowmen who were facing identical political turmoil and crisis. He embraced reality and tried to find peace and tolerance through his poems. In times of extreme challenge, his poetry of balance and calmness gave warmth and strength that everyone needed at the time. In conclusion, the poetry of Wolsa was born in a time of turbulence and was utilized as a diplomatic means, as well as a medium to harmonize and soothe society and its people in confusion. Wolsa showed the power and influence that poetry can have as a means of healing society and giving hope and balance to its people.; 月沙 李廷龜(1564~1635)는 국난의 시대에 文才로써 국가의 난제를 해결하고, 외교의 현장에서 조선 文運의 건재함을 과시하며, 난세의 현실에 대응해 시로써 균형과 포용의 시학을 구축한 시인이다. 본고의 논의는 月沙 李廷龜(1564~1635)와 그의 한시가 지니는 이상의 詩史的 의의를 규명하는 것을 목표로 하였다. 이를 위해 다음과 같은 순서에 따라 논의를 진행하였다. 먼저 이정구 한시 문학의 형성 배경과 作詩의 경향을 살핀 뒤 그의 생애, 문학에 대한 태도와 지향, 당대 및 후대의 평가를 고찰해 이정구의 한시 문학 이해를 위한 실마리를 마련하였다. 이어 이정구 한시 문학의 내용적 범주와 양상, 미적 특징과 풍격을 살피고 그 결과를 바탕으로 이정구의 시가 漢詩史에서 지니는 문학사적 의의를 도출하였다. 이정구는 평생 난세가 요구한 외교 문인으로서의 삶을 살았다. 그는 수학기부터 문장을 통해 입신하여 국가를 경영하고 나라를 빛내는 데 자신의 文才를 활용하겠다는 목표를 가지고 실력을 쌓았다. 유창하게 시를 지을 수 있는 실력을 기르고, 다양한 서적을 박람 섭렵해 해박의 경지에 이를 수 있도록 힘썼다. 또한 중국어 회화 능력을 기르고 戒逸의 정신을 체화하였다. 이렇게 해 내면에 온축된 지식과 실력, 성품은 그가 평생 급박한 외교 현장에서 외교 문인으로 활약하고, 난세의 위기 속에서도 실력을 인정받으며 비교적 순탄한 관료 문인으로서의 삶을 살 수 있었던 밑거름이 되었다. 이정구는 자신의 작가상을 난세에 經國과 華國의 위업을 달성한 외교 문인으로 수립하려 하였다. 현전 문집 체재와 분류를 고려할 때 이정구의 한시는 외교의 현장에서 지은 시와 일상적 상황에서 쓴 시로 대별 가능하다. 즉 그의 시문학은 使行詩와 接伴詩와 같이 외교 국면에서 생산된 것과 외교 관료로서 활동하지 않는 ‘관료적 일상’에서 나온 시로 구분할 수 있다. 외교적 범주에서 활동하는 과정에서 나온 사행시와 접반시에는 기본적으로 能文者라는 자부심이 내재되어 있다. 그러나 사행의 과정에서 특히 자부심이 유로되는 경우가 많았으며, 경세 의지도 자주 표출되었다. 또한 그의 사행시는 明 ․ 後金의 질서가 변화하는 과정에서 나왔기 때문에, 작품 속에서 명국에 대한 미세한 인식의 변화와 후금에 대한 이질감이 포착된다. 접반시에서는 이전 시기와 달라진 당대 정치, 외교적 상황의 영향이 감지된다. 우선 ‘재조지은’과 ‘후금에 대한 토벌 의지의 확인’과 같은 정치의식이 노출되는 빈도가 높아졌다는 것을 확인할 수 있다. 또한 임란 이후 조명 간의 외교적 불균형이 심해짐에 따라 수창 현장의 상황도 달라졌는데, 이로 인해 접반시에서도 외교적 수사의 측면에서 이전 시기와 달라진 점을 포착할 수 있었다. 일상적 범주에 속하는 시는 광해군대 정치적 고난을 겪으며 쓴 시와 그 이외 관인으로서의 생활을 영위하며 쓴 시로 구분할 수 있다. 이정구는 관료 문인으로서 동료 후임들을 권면, 위로하거나 국가의 사업을 선양하고, 교류하는데 시를 활용했다. 자신의 현실 생활과 밀접한 연관을 맺고 있었으며 실질적인 목적을 위해 시를 활용한 것이다. 또한 관인으로서의 삶의 연장선상에서 즐기는 興趣와 정서적 여유도 주요한 시적 소재가 되었다. 조정에서 폐축 되었을 때에는 유사한 정치적 고난을 겪는 이들을 위한 위로와 공감, 歸隱과 濟世欲 사이에서의 갈등 양상, 혼탁한 현실에 대한 근심이 주요한 시적 소재가 되었다. 이정구의 시에서 經世欲과 자신감은 작품의 주요한 제재이자 작가의식의 근간을 이룬다. 특징적인 것은 이러한 의식이 豪氣를 통해 표출되며, 그에게 있어 豪氣는 상황에 따라 변하는 기질을 의미한다는 점이다. 즉 그가 생각하는 豪氣는 용기, 씩씩함, 넓은 도량 등 陽剛적 성향만을 가리키는 것이 아니고, 여유로움, 화평함, 맑은 기운과도 연결된다. 따라서 기상이 주로 표출되는 시에서 ‘활달함과 씩씩함’의 풍격을 지니는 유형과 ‘시원스러움과 너그러움’의 풍격을 띠는 유형이 공존할 수 있었던 것이다. 사행이나 사신 접반을 위해 遠行을 가는 도중에 읊은 시에 氣象이 주로 나타난다. 그 중에서도 동료들을 향해 사신으로서의 기품과 위엄을 드러내야 할 때, 광활한 자연 경관을 목도한 뒤 정신 규모가 확대되는 감동적인 체험을 하게 되었을 때, 임무 수행 중 괴로움과 걱정, 불안함과 같은 정서가 느껴지는 상황을 만나게 되었을 때, 조선의 사신으로서 명국 인사들의 앞에서 시를 지어야 할 때에는 ‘활달함과 씩씩함’의 풍격이 느껴지는 시로 기상을 표출하였다. 난관에 처했을 때, 두려움과 걱정이 생겨날 때, 일국을 대표하는 문인으로서 또는 문인들을 대표하는 수장으로서 넉넉하고 여유로우면서도 씩씩한 기상을 드러냄으로써 타인을 격려하고 국가의 위엄을 드러내려 했던 것이다. 공무로 인한 고민으로 인해 두려움이나 불안감이 들 때 ‘활달함과 씩씩함’이 느껴지도록 기상을 표현했다면, 편협한 생각이나 조급한 마음이 들 때 즉 여유로움을 갖지 못하는 데서 오는 번민의 감정이 들 때에는 ‘시원스러움과 너그러움’의 풍격이 느껴지도록 기상을 표출하였다. 즉 여러 사람을 포용해 조화를 이루게 해야 할 때, 생각했던 것처럼 일이 진행되지 않을 때에는 넉넉하고 시원스럽고 밝은 기운을 드러냄으로써 타인을 포용하고 조화를 이루게 하려 한 것이다. 이정구의 시가 지닌 주요한 특징은 유연한 정서 조절이다. 이 때문에 그가 뛰어난 외교 문인으로 활약할 수 있었던 것인데, 특히 위기 국면에서 정서의 수위를 조정해 능숙하게 대응하는 능력을 갖추고 있었다. 즉 사신의 감정이나 접반 태도, 상대방의 시 내용과 감정 표현 정도 등을 고려해 자신의 감정과 시의를 안배할 수 있었던 것이다. 따라서 대부분의 경우에는 양국 간의 친밀한 관계 유지를 위해 ‘자연스러움과 정서의 풍부함’이 느껴지는 시로 대응했으나, 외교적 무례를 범하는 사신을 응대하거나 정치적으로 민감한 사안에 대해 다루어야 할 경우에는 겉으로 볼 때에는 평이해 보이지만 심후한 의미와 주제가 숨겨져 있는 시로써 대응할 수 있었던 것이다. 관료로서의 일상을 영위하는 가운데 창작된 시의 경우는 난세라는 현실적 상황에도 불구하고 화평함을 추구했다는 데서 미적 특징을 찾을 수 있다. 개인적으로 고난을 겪으며 쓴 시에서는 여유롭고 평안한 마음과 긍정적 태도가 느껴지는 의경을 구현함으로써 온화함과 정서적 여유 즉 돈후함의 풍격이 드러난다는 특징을 지닌다. 또한 난세라는 시대 상황으로 인해 정치적 불우를 겪게 된 이들을 위해 지은 시에서는 조화로운 사고를 통해 현실을 수용하고 극복하는 포용의 정신을 강조했다. 극과 극이 대립하는 상황에서 균형적 시각을 바탕으로 한 포용의 시학을 구축함으로써 따뜻함과 부드러움의 힘을 보여준 것이다. 종합하자면, 이정구의 한시는 전란과 혼란의 시대에 발생해 외교적 용도로 활용되었으며, 혼란한 시대와 사회를 치유해 조화를 이루도록 하는 경국의 수단으로 쓰였다. 따라서 그의 시는 사업과 문학을 일치시킨 관료 문인의 영역을 계승한 자리에 놓이면서 동시에 난세에 대응한 외교적 수사학의 전형적 모형을 구현하고, 난세의 갈등적 상황에 대응해 화평한 사회를 위한 균형과 포용의 시학이 갖는 힘을 보여주었다는 점에서 의의를 지닌다.
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