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유아용 자동차시트(Car-seat) 디자인의 소재연구와 활용

Title
유아용 자동차시트(Car-seat) 디자인의 소재연구와 활용
Other Titles
A Study and Application to Material Design of Infants’ Car Seat
Authors
김혜진
Issue Date
2014
Department/Major
디자인대학원 섬유디자인전공
Publisher
이화여자대학교 디자인대학원
Degree
Master
Advisors
차영순
Abstract
This thesis discusses fabric materials used for car seats for infants, particularly toddlers, that are designed to fulfill more strict requirements than seats in other transportations. Infants’ car seats are necessary for the safety of infant passengers and the installation of infants’ car seats are obligated legally. Therefore the production of car seats for infants should consider antibiosis, detergency, comfort, and design because they would affect children’s emotions and behaviors in the seats. Automative seat fabric is one of the important factors for a customer to purchase a new vehicle seat device. A variety of companies manufacturing car seat fabrics have developed designs that can not only reinforce safety features but also attract potential parents as customers visually as well as psychologically. Furthermore, the materials of infants’cover seats should be considered cautiously in order not to irritate an infant’s sensitive skin. Hence this study investigates the materials of car-seat and current advanced techniques. To this end, relevant published data about fabrics and weaving textiles were primarily obtained though diverse references such as academic thesis, dissertations, books, journals, publications, and media. Moreover, the recent trend of seat textile design was sequentially analyzed in terms of the combination of colours or brands. First, the concepts of Nano filament and weaving especially Jacquard, composed of Infants' car-seats in fabric, are first defined. Secondly, the difference of preference between infants as direct consumers and parents as indirect consumers (actual purchasers) is examined, and then the current products of Infants' car seats in domestic and foreign markets are analyzed by conducting the references’ reviews, case studies and surveys. In the precess, using the questionnaire, including 131 answer elements in 16 questions, was created and finalized. On the basis of formative arts and design elements, the models of colour, pattern (geometrical figure, foliage plant, animals) related to preference or satisfaction are developed in addition to the application of fabric composition for car seats which can satisfy both parents and infants. Demographic factors such as age, gender, household income, geographical location of respondents are collected concurrently for an accurate analysis in detail. Details of the whole precess conducted in this study are as follows: The questions were developed for figuring out preferred design factors and unsatisfactory elements of the infants and parents. With this format of questionnaires, face-to-face surveys were conducted several times on the weekends or holidays for raising response rates of working parents. The surveys were conducted twice from 6 places, such markets, fair places (Homeplus retails of Sangam, Jamsil, Kangdong, Kyobo Bookstore in Kangnam, kidzania, LotteWorld in Jamsil), where children’s rides are provided and two kindergartens; Da-som and Sin-Hyun. The first survey was conducted to the subject group, parents having 3-6 year old toddlers, and 216 respondents answered questions. The survey results find that Britax Brands of car seats are most being used (33%) and next Daichi (11%), following Maxicosi and Others (each 9%). When it comes to the frequency of purchasing car seats, less than half of the respondents answered ‘once,’and 42 % answered ‘twice.’As for the most important factor in selecting infants’ seats, ‘Safety’ was chosen by 94 respondents, ‘Brand’ by 46 respondents, ‘Price’ by 26 respondents. In addition, 77% of respondents answered that there is no need for classifying sex in car seat products and 109 respondents, more than half of the totals, made the most choice of ‘Material’(Fabric) as the improvement of baby car seats fabric, consecutively following Shape (Size), and the minority chose Colour, and Pattern. The colours that are mostly preferred for infants' car seats was‘Navy’(67 respondents), and‘Red’as the second preferred color to ‘Navy’. The rest of the respondents showed that there would be little difference in colours. Regarding the shape of images printed in car seats, the survey demonstrates that most children have higher preference to ‘heart’, ‘star’ figures, ‘dogs’, and ‘sunflower’ than any other images in each category. Thereby, in based on these results of questionnaires and references, the concept and motif of design were settled. In geometrical figures, ‘heart’ shape chosen by 80 respondents was the most preferred one in a singular item than 70 answers of ‘star’figure. However, in groups of similar figures, total 131 respondents of sum‘folded star’(23 persons) and ‘round star’(31 persons), ‘outline star’(7 persons) were unquestionably more than any other shapes even ‘heart’ figure. The most preferred animal was ‘dogs’ chosen by 55 respondents, ‘rabbits’ as the second preferred animal by 42 respondents, and ‘tigers’ and ‘elephants’ respectively by 33 respondents. In plants, 42 persons preferred ‘sunflower’most. In based on the results of questionnaires, the product design was developed to gratify customer demands and to motivate their latent purchasing power. Moreover, the automotive baby seat functional evaluation is to begin a main element in seat design. It depends largely on tthe basic aspect of material property such as tearing strength, antibiosis, durability, abrasivity, antistaining, crease resistance, heat reservance, the fastness of colour of seat, choice of seat cover and cushion material used. This thesis will help the designers and developers clarify the conceptual and abstract aspect of the design by suggesting more accurate and customer-especially infants-oriented methods. This study would help to advance a design of car seats fabric fitting children’s preference and practicality of practical users, children. It would have been available to make complex fabric with the composition of PET Nano filaments and organic cotton yarns. As an unintended result, two different types of textiles were finally weaved; the former is twill weaves and satin weaves with two combinations of PET in two types, Nano filaments from Kolon Industry Fashion Materials(FM), which are separated whether or not it needs process divided additionally, as wefts and cotton 50’s or 60’s as warps and some parts of weft. The latter is a jacquard weave with puppy patterns using organic cotton 60’s from Han-Joong Union Corp. as wefts and normal PET 75D/36F 800TM yarns from KJTI(Korea Jacquard Textile Institute) as warps. Unfortunately, It has a certain limit to product which has a little less improved functionality than intended purpose because the existing warps hung for other fabrics should be served as this warps unceasingly, not substituted for entirely new ones owing to its significant costs and insufficiency of the amount in case of replacement. In this thesis, Nano Filaments which have been expected due to its significant possibility of development for an additionally new functionality and Organic Cotton yarns were chosen lest a baby should acquire an allergy to seats. In compare to existing knitted fabrics in market trends, it was utilized that the weaving process of Jacquard fabric with the children’s favorite patterns, Star-shaped geometric figures and dogs. In this study, the textile dyeing proceeded using Natural materials such as gardenia seeds(Gardenia Jasminoides) for yellow colour, lithospermi(Lithospermum erythorhizo) for red or purple colours and Indigo(Persicaria tinctoria) for blue colour, an environment-friendly, harmless, and non-toxic substances. That’s because this can minimize a side effect on infant’s sensitive skin without artificially chemical substance generated during dyeing process. Also the purpose of this thesis is to propose car seat designs that satisfy the toddlers on the basis of the questionnaires results about the difference of preference between parents and children, recognizing that parents actually purchase car seats even though it would be seated by their infants, not themselves. When it comes to accuracy of questionnaires, it would be better that additional supplements be conducted for quite an accurate predictation or research by collecting more respondents. That’s because there was a limit for an individual to effectuate questionnaires or surveys. This thesis, thereby, would be concluded hoping to the succession of numerous studies with replenishments of these deficiencies.;본 연구는 유아용 안전시트(Car seat)의 기능성을 향상시키고 유아들의 감성을 충족하는 직물을 디자인하는 것을 목적으로 한다. 선행연구 자료가 부족한 유아용 카시트의 섬유소재를 연구함으로써, 넓게는 열차, 지하철 등 대중교통수단의 특수 대상층인 아동좌석으로 응용할 수 있으며, 성인용 일반 카시트의 섬유소재로 그 쓰임을 확장할 수 있다. 또한 섬유의 물리적 특성에 관한 많은 시험평가항목 중 항균성, 세척성과 안락성에 초점을 맞춘다. 유아용이 아닌 자동차 내장재인 시트에 관한 선행 연구는 많으므로 그를 응용하여, 본 연구에서는 심미적인 디자인을 고려하여 유아들의 피부를 고려한 친환경적인 소재를 디자인하는 것을 목적을 한다. 교통수단 시트로서의 중요성은 대구 지하철 참사의 원인을 예로 들 수 있다. 시트에서 나온 유독가스로 질식사를 유발할 수 있다는 사실은 시트소재와 그 물성 연구의 필요성을 입증한다. 그러나 사업 관점에서의 자동차 시트는 심미성 즉 디자인을 고려해야 판매로 직결되며, 유아용이란 특수성을 고려하면 정서적, 신체적 발달 측면까지 염두에 둔 소재 디자인이 필요하다. 유아용 안전시트 소재의 선행 연구가 부족한 실정에서 이를 보완하여 참고할 만한 유아용 제품 중, 본 연구는 유아복과 자동차시트 관련 연구자료를 참고하였다. 현재 유아복은, 특히 실내복은 캐릭터 디자인을 프린팅한 제품이 주를 이루나, 최근 영유아복의 칼라 견뢰도가 낮아 염료가 유아 피부에 부작용을 끼칠 수도 있다는 보도자료가 있는 바, 본 연구는 유아용 안전시트로 적합한 섬유소재를 직물로 제시하고자 한다. 본 연구는 다음과 같이 진행이 되었다. 앞부분에서는 학위논문, 학술논문, 신문기사 및 사진 등 1차 자료와 선행연구 자료를 토대로 본 연구에서 진행할 디자인의 방향설정에 초점을 두었다. 직물의 근본이 되는 원사로 나노 필라멘트(Nano filament)와 친환경 소재인 유기농 면사(Organic cotton)를 선정하였다. 나노 필라멘트는 향후 발전 가능성이 높은 초극세사로 나노사이즈의 미세한 입자가 진드기, 벌레와 같은 미생물의 크기보다 작아 바이러스 침투를 막기에 적합한 소재로 여겨진다. 그러나 나노 필라멘트의 이러한 특성은 이에 따른 단점도 야기할 가능성이 있어서 이를 보완하고자 천연소재인 면사 중 유아 대상이란 특수성을 감안하여 유기농면사를 혼합한 직물을 연구, 제직하기로 하였다. 또한 제품과 소비자분석을 통해 유아들이 좋아하는 디자인을 파악하고자 하였다. 국내외 유아용 안전시트제품을 조사, 분석하여 유아용 안전시트로 가장 보편적으로 사용되는 섬유 종류와 색상, 배색, 패턴 등을 분석하였다. 또한 유아용 안전시트에 대한 소비자 분석을 사용자인 유아와 구매자인 부모로 구분하여 분석하였다. 유아들의 특성과 감각인지에 대해 알아보고 유아들이 선호하는 색상을 파악하였으며 반면에 부모들이 선호하는 디자인요소로는 선행연구 결과가 미비한 까닭에 유아복과 자동차시트에 관한 기존의 자료를 검토하였다. 그리고 이 두 집단의 소비자선호도를 모두 조사하기 위해 직접자료인 설문조사를 1, 2차에 나누어 실행하였다. 설문 진행 전 세운 가설과 1차 조사를 토대로 새로운 정보를 수집하고자 2차 설문조사를 추가로 진행하게 된 것이다. 앞 장들의 이론적 배경과 설문조사를 토대로 유아들이 선호하는 디자인요소를 반영하여 유아용 안전시트에 적합한 소재를 제안하였다. 설문조사 결과를 토대로, 가장 선호되는 도형, 동물을 패턴의 모티프로 삼아 유기농 면사로 자카드 제직을 하였으며, 나노 필라멘트사를 활용하여 무늬 없이 위사의 변화로만 능직과 수자직을 제직하였다. 이 중 일부는 위사와 경사가 앞뒷면에서 반전되는 자카드 패턴이 잘 보이게끔 디자인하였다. 제직 후에는 유아들이 선호하는 색상으로 천연염재를 이용한 자연염색을 하였으며, 누비천을 덧대어 이중으로 봉제하였다. 그 후 소재에 대한 물성테스트로는 KOTITI시험연구원에 인장강도, 인열강도, 인장신도, 마모강도, 필링, 방염시험, 일광견뢰도, 마찰견뢰도, 항균성 등의 항목에 대한 시험의뢰를 하였다. 본 연구는 유아용 안전시트에 관한 것으로, 기존 연구들이 유아용 안전장치인 자동차시트에 초점이 맞춰진 반면, 본 연구는 그 장치의 섬유소재에 대해 방향을 설정하였다. 본 연구는 유아용 안전시트란 제품을 디자인 즉, 편이성과 심미성 측면에서 접근을 하며, 향후 본 연구가 유아용에만 국한되는 것이 아니라 성인한테까지 범위가 확대되고, 안전시트에서 차량용 시트, 철도, 비행기 및 교통수단의 시트란 형태에도 응용될 수 있다고 예상하여 진행하고자 함이다.
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