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조선시대 복식에 표현된 한국인의 미의식 연구

Title
조선시대 복식에 표현된 한국인의 미의식 연구
Authors
금기숙
Issue Date
1988
Department/Major
대학원 의류직물학과
Publisher
이화여자대학교 대학원
Degree
Doctor
Abstract
韓國服飾의 實體를 정확하고 심도있게 이해하기 위해서는 복식의 외형적 변천에 대한 연구 뿐만 아니라 韓國服飾에 대한 美學的·美術史的 접근 등 새로운 연구방법의 활용이 필요하다. 本 論文에서는 이러한 시도의 일환으로 한국복식 중 朝鮮服飾에 美學的 照明을 가하여 服飾에 표현된 객관적인 美的 特徵을 분석하고, 이러한 美的 特徵에 內在된 당시대인들의 美意識을 抽出해 보도록 노력하였다. 朝鮮服飾의 美的 特徵을 복식의 조형요소인 形態, 色彩, 紋樣, 素材 등으로 구분하여 고찰하고, 그 밖에 美的 意志가 集中된 裝身具와 당대의 公的 記錄인 服制도 검토하였다. 美學的 입장에서 조명된 朝鮮服飾은 편안하고 자연스러워 보이는 풍성한 형태감 속에 曲線과 律動美를 함유하고, 깊이 있고 차분한 素色과 白衣의 아름다움 위에 黑白의 調和, 原色과 색동의 調和와 같은 의외의 變格이 나타나는 美的 特徵을 보여주었다. 紋樣에 있어서도 素紋과 地紋에 의한 은은한 美가 主流를 이루지만 파격적인 原色의 紋樣이 주의를 환기시키는 양면성을 보여주었다. 素材에 있어서는 生成感을 지니는 자연 그대로의 素材가 애용되면서도 매끄럽고 고운 素材에 대한 집착을 보았다. 實用性의 명분과 장식성을 조화시킨 장신구는 紋樣이나 色彩와 함께 寓意와 呪術的 性格이 강조됨이 확인되었다. 이렇게 분석고찰된 美的 特徵으로부터 類推된 美的 價値는 自然美, 人格美, 벽邪의 美와 傳統美 등으로 분류될 수 있다. 自然美는 朝鮮時代人들의 성품과 풍류사상, 경천사상 등에서 연원하며 자연과 조화를 이루는 각종 美的 特徵들을 등장시켰고, 人格美는 당시대의 지배적 사상이던 儒敎의 윤리관과 규범을 근거로 복식을 통하여 신분에 따른 인격을 표시하는 美的 特徵을 도출시켰다. 한편, 벽邪의 義는 민속신앙이나 巫俗 등의 기반 위에 紋樣, 色彩, 裝身具 등을 통하여 강한 주술성과 寓意를 상징하는 美的 特徵을 가미시켰고, 傳統美는 朝鮮時代人들의 보수적인 성품과 儒敎的 倫理觀에 입각하여 朝鮮服飾의 외형적 특성에 대한 끈질긴 집착을 보이게 하였다. 이와 같은 美的 價値들은 朝鮮時代人들이 服飾을 제작하고, 착용하고, 감상할 때 활용했던 判斷基準이었으며, 이들 美的 價値들을 기준으로 한 美的 體驗과 美的 態度가 당시대인들이 가졌던 美意識이며, 朝鮮服飾에 작용했던 造形意志라 하겠다. 결국 朝鮮人들이 추구했던 朝鮮服飾의 멋과 아름다움은 위와 같은 美的 價値와 美的 特徵들의 절묘한 조화를 통해서 具現되었으며, 그들의 솜씨와 着裝者의 맵시에 의하여 可視化되고 음미되면서 발전해 온 것이다. ; A mere study of external characteristics of costume is insufficient to gain a full understanding of Korean traditional costumes and their wearers. Yet, most previous studies focus only on the external characteristics of costumes. As an attempt to view Korean traditional costumes from a new perspective, the aesthetic consciousness of the people of the Choson period, as expressed through the aesthetic characteristic of costumes, is pursued in this study. In this study, the following aesthetic characteristics of traditional Korean costumes are investigated: form(形態), color(色彩), pattern(紋樣), material(素材), and ornament(裝身具). The regulations and restrictions relation to costumes during the Chosen period, as shown in the official records, such as the sumptuary laws are also investigated. From the viewpoint of aesthetics, this study shows that traditional Korean costumes during the Choson period had comfortable and voluminous forms with beautiful curved lines and rhythm. The most favored colors were white and the natural colors of the material(素色). However, unusual combinations of colors, such as the contrast of black and white, and the harmony of primary and rainbow color(색동), were often used, resulting in the unique beauty of traditional Korean costumes during the Choson period. Patterns reveal two aspects: while subdued patterns generally prevail, at times the unexpected beauty of primary colored patterns draws our attention. People during the Choson period loved natural materials, and they often showed a strong preference for smooth materials. Ornaments, which were worn both for practical and decorative purpose, were used, together with certain colors and patterns, to indicate the wearer’s status and to ward off evil spirits. The aesthetic values in costumes, as expressed through the aesthetic characteristics referred to above, can be classified into the following categories: the beauty of nature(自然美), the beauty of personality(人格美), the beauty of evils’ eye(벽邪의 美), and the beauty of tradition(傳統美). The beauty of nature, as appreciated by the Choson people through their prevailing nature, the “Pungrew Spirit(風流精神)”, and through their worship of Heaven(敬天思想), produced aesthetic characteristics in harmony with nature. The beauty of personality, influenced by the ethical standards of Confucianism, which was the dominant code of conduct at that time, produced aesthetic characteristics in costumes, through which the appropriate personality was shown for the appropriate social status. On the other hand, the beauty of evils’ eye, rooted deeply in folk religion and Shamanism, contributed to various aesthetic characteristics, which strongly inclined to sorcery and symbolism through the choice of patterns, colors and ornaments. Finally, the beauty of tradition, which is based on the ethics of Confucianism and the Choson people’s conservative tendencies, demonstrated the strong tendency to adhere to the external characteristics of the Choson costumes. These aesthetic values were the yardsticks of the aesthetic judgment of the Choson people and greatly influenced them in designing and wearing costumes and in appreciation the beauty of costumes. The aesthetic experience and attitudes of the Choson people, which were based on these aesthetic values, represented their aesthetic consciousness and desired, which influenced the design and wear of their costumes. Thus, “Meot(멋)”, and “beauty(아름다움)” were pursued by the Choson people through the exquisite harmonization of these aesthetic values and characteristics, and were visualized, refined and developed through the skills and manners of the people in the costumes.
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