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정약용의 무과제도 개혁안 연구

Title
정약용의 무과제도 개혁안 연구
Other Titles
A Study on Cheong Yagyong’s Reform Plan for Military Examination System
Authors
피수경
Issue Date
2014
Department/Major
대학원 사회과교육학과
Publisher
이화여자대학교 대학원
Degree
Master
Advisors
차미희
Abstract
본 연구는 18세기 후반 무과제도의 운영의 실제를 바탕으로 정약용(丁若鏞, 1762-1836)의 무과제도 개혁안을 살펴보았다. 경세론(經世論)은 당대의 제도와 문물의 문제점을 개선하려는 시도로, 경세제민(經世濟民)을 목표로 삼는다. 정약용의 경세론도 조선후기의 사회에 대한 인식을 바탕으로 제안되었기 때문에 당대의 시대적인 맥락 속에서 검토해야한다. 특히 무과제도 개혁안은 경세론 전반과 긴밀하게 연결되어 있으며, 조선후기의 복잡한 사회적인 변화 속에서 무과제도의 기능이 상실된 상태였기 때문에 정약용의 문제인식과 개혁방안의 성격을 보다 잘 이해할 수 있는 주제이다. 따라서 정약용이 관원으로 활동했던 18세기 후반을 중심으로 무과제도의 실제를 검토하고, 이를 바탕으로 그의 무과제도에 대한 인식과 개혁안을 고찰하였다. 18세기 후반에는 양반 신분을 획득하려는 하층민과 신분을 유지하려는 사족(士族)이 적극적으로 무과에 응시하였다. 또한 고시 과목이 무예 중심으로 변화하고, 별시와 만과(萬科)가 자주 시행되면서 무과 급제자가 폭발적으로 증가하였다. 그러나 관직의 숫자는 점차 줄어들어 선달로 일생을 마치는 사람이 늘어나는 적체(積滯)의 문제가 심화되었다. 한편, 적체문제를 해소하는 과정에서 관직 진출을 결정하는 기준이 개인의 능력이 아니라 가문의 지체로 변화하면서, 무과제도와 관직 진출이 이원화되었다. 정약용은 당시 무과제도의 폐단을 해결하기 위하여 무과 응시자의 선정과 급제자의 선발 및 관직 진출을 유기적으로 연결하였다. 특히 관직의 수에 비례하여 급제자와 응시자의 수를 제한할 것을 강조하였는데, 덕행(德行), 지략(智略), 무예(武藝)를 기준으로 천거된 거인(擧人)만 무과 응시를 허용했다. 그리고 5단계로 세분화된 고시 절차를 마련하여 18가지 고시과목으로 거인의 능력을 공정하게 검증하였다. 또한 신진 급제자는 무반 관원으로서 합당한 능력을 갖추고 있는지 검증하고 곧장 관직을 제수하였다. 이와 같은 정약용의 무과제도 개혁안의 내용 속에는 삼대(三代)의 인재 선발 방식을 본받은 이상적이고 복고적인 부분과 당시의 문제점을 명확히 인식하고 현실적인 제약을 고려한 부분이 공존한다. 결국 정약용의 무과제도 개혁안은 무반관원으로 합당한 능력을 소유한 인재를 선발하고 임용한다는 무과제도의 본질적인 기능을 회복하기 위하여 당대의 현실과 이상을 적절히 조화시킨 결과물이었다.;This paper involves discussing how Cheong Yagyong(丁若鏞, 1762-1836) understood the status of the Military Examination System(武科제도) in the late eighteenth century and proposed its reform plan as a resolution. Cheong Yagyong was one of the statecraft theorists pursuing Administrating the state to relieve the people’s suffering(經世濟民) as its core idea. With this fact, it is obvious that his thoughts should be understood in the historical context when he lived, the late period of Joseon Dynasty. Moreover, his proposal for the reform plan clearly reflected the social crisis which came from the failed management of the military examination system since there had been continuous rapid changes in the society. Therefore, this paper aims to explore the distinguishing features of practical administration of the military examination system in the late eighteenth century from 1766 to 1800 when Cheong Yagyong observed the society as a government official. Based on this analysis, this paper is able to comprehend his reform plan on how he blended the practicality well with his ideology into a superlative policy. In the late eighteenth century, the military examination became open to any social classes except for Cheonin(賤人). This change encouraged Yangin(良人) and Sajok(士族) figures to apply for the examination under the same purpose with different reasons. Yangin wanted to acquire the social class as Yangban(兩班) figures, while Sajok figures who already had been of the status as Yangban figures wanted to maintain their social position. In addition, the government frequently conducted the examination under the double operation system of Byulsi(別試) and Mankwa(萬科). There was also a change in evaluation that the applicants were appraised mostly by Muye(武藝). These three major changes resulted in an explosive growth of passers. However, the number of military office had shrunk in reverse to that of passers. Congestion problem(積滯) caused a rapid increase of Sundal(先達), which made the career as a governmental official of a passer highly dependent on his lineage(門閥). Only a few men of high birth were able to be appointed as governmental officials among thousands of passers. Therefore, the military examination system lost its primary duty as a decision making of pass and appointment of government officials. To overcome this social issue, Cheong Yagyong attempted to directly link each process of the examination with another; especially the three stages of recommendation of the examination candidates, pass and career were tightly related. With this idea, he emphasized an institution of relative upper limit of the number of Passers(及第出身) and Candidates(擧人) in accordance with the number of government offices. To be specific, he established the criteria for Cheongeo(薦擧) with the focus of triangular elements; Virtue(德行), Scheme(모략) and Martial arts(武藝). Moreover, a five-staged-examination process was proposed to appraise candidates’ abilities on equal ground through examining eighteen subjects. It did not take long to be appointed as a government official only if a new examination passer was testified his qualification. This paper considers that Cheong Yagyong’s military examination system reform plan was a harmonized mixture of his ideology and practicality. He was influenced by Emperor Yao and Shun(堯舜 三代) on his recruitment and selection appointment process of human resources which was ideal and rather reactionary. On the contrary, there were still some compromises in his plan to increase the feasibility. Therefore, this paper is able to conclude that the fundamental purpose of Cheong Yagong’s military examination system reform plan was to select and appoint proper talents for military officials, and to seek an intense way to make it realized.
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