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C. A. Debussy의 Sonata pour violoncello et piano에 대한 분석 연구

C. A. Debussy의 Sonata pour violoncello et piano에 대한 분석 연구
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A Study on C. Debussy’s ‘Sonata for Violoncello and Piano in d minor'
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대학원 음악학부
이화여자대학교 대학원
본 논문은 낭만주의음악에서 20세기 새로운 음악으로 전환되는 시기에 활동한 대표적인 프랑스 작곡가 드뷔시(Claude Debussy, 1862-1918)의 <첼로 소나타 Cello sonata in d minor>에 관한 연구이다. 가장 프랑스 적인 작곡가로 불리는 드뷔시는 이전에 보여줬던 독일식의 무게감 있는 곡들에 대비되는 프랑스 음악을 만들려했다. 그의 선율은 반음계와 교회선법의 사용으로 조성에 얽매이지 않았고, 화성은 병진행과 오스티나토를 사용하는 등 다성 음악의 복잡성을 단순화 하여 전통적인 화성기능을 현대화하였다. 이러한 그의 음악 양식은 낭만시대의 틀을 깼고 음악에서 인상주의를 확립 하여, 새로운 음악의 시대를 열었다. 제1차 세계대전이 일어난 직후에 쓰인 그의 후기 작품의 하나인 이 곡은 「여러 악기 편성에 의한 6곡의 소나타(Six Sonates pour divers Instruments)」중 첫 번째 곡이다. 이 여섯 개의 소나타 중 완성된 것은 3개의 소나타이다. 이 논문에서는 드뷔시의 생애와 시대적 배경에 대해 알아보고 또한 드뷔시가 소나타의 형식을 어떻게 다루었는지 분석 하였다.;This thesis is on Claude Debussy’s ‘Sonata for violoncello and piano in d minor’. C. A. Debussy is one of the most significant figures associated with Impressionism music of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. His use of non-traditional scales influenced many composers who adored. He successfully combined modernism and sensuality so that their sheer beauty often obscures their technical innovation. Debussy is often considered as the founder and leading exponent of musical Impressionism. His adoption of non-traditional scales and tonal structures was paradigmatic for many composers who followed Debussy. He has completed writing three sonatas till end of his life. cello sonata was the first of a planned series of 'Six sonates pour divers instruments', However, Debussy only completed two others, which were the sonata for violin and the sonata for flute, viola and harp. The sonata for cello and piano was written in 1915, which is a staple of the modern cello repertoire and is commonly regarded as one of the finest masterpieces written for the instrument. It is divided into three short movements. The two final movements are joined by an attacca. Instead of sonata form, Debussy structures the piece in the style of the eighteenth-century. In 1915 between the Prussian War and World War I, a group of musicians sought to preserve French culture by calling for a return to French classicism in music and by banning all German music. It seems that while Debussy admitted his desire to preserve French culture, he refused to adhere to their artistic demands which would have limited his art. The sonata can be marked by its modest size and repetition of melodic ideas as opposed to the progression of large-scale harmony. It feature the use of a variety of chord(7th,9th,11th,13th), altered incomplete, and add tone. It also employs a variety of scales major or minor, chromatic, pentatonic and whole tone, along with half step dynamic conflicts and melodies constructed on 4ths, 5ths and triomnes. Debussy’s music is also characterized by 5 distinctive features. (1) Glittering passages and webs of figurations which distract from occasional absence of tonality; (2) Frequent use of parallel chords which are "in essence not harmonies at all, but rather 'chordal melodies', enriched unisons"; (3) Bitonality, or at least bitonal chords; (4) Use of the whole-tone and pentatonic scale; (5) Unprepared modulations, "without any harmonic bridge. Rudolph Reti points out the features of Debussy's music, which "established a new concept of tonality in European music": It can be said that Debussy's achievement was the synthesis of monophonic based "melodic tonality" with harmonies, albeit different from those of "harmonic tonality.
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