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여성실업자의 재취업에 관한 연구

Title
여성실업자의 재취업에 관한 연구
Authors
김세경
Issue Date
2003
Department/Major
대학원 사회복지학과
Publisher
이화여자대학교 대학원
Degree
Master
Advisors
강철희
Abstract
여성의 경제활동참가율은 양적인 측면에서는 급격히 증가하였으나 이러한 양적인 성장이 고용의 질적 개선으로 연결되지는 못하였다. 특히 경제위기 이후 여성노동시장 구조와 특성의 변화에 따른 여성의 실망실업화와 고용불안정성이 심화되었음에도 불구하고 남성중심의 실업 고용정책이 전개됨에 따라 노동시장에서 여성의 위치는 더욱 열악한 수준에 이르게 되었다. 이에 본 연구는 한국노동연구원이 조사한 '한국노동패널조사(Korean Labor and Income Panel Study)'의 5차년도(2002)자료를 이용하여 콕스 비례위험 회귀분석 모형(Cox Proportional Hazards Regression Model)과 로지스틱 회귀분석 모형(Logistic Regression Analysis)을 통해 여성의 실업기간 및 재취업형태를 실증적으로 분석하고 여성노동시장의 구조와 특성을 탐색적으로 살펴봄으로써, 여성실업자의 특성이 반영될 수 있는 여성실업 및 고용관련정책의 기본적인 방향을 모색하고자 하였다. 본 연구의 분석결과는 정리하면 다음과 같다. 첫째, 여성실업자의 재취업가능성은 실직 직후 가장 높게 나타났으며, 실업기간이 증가됨에 따라 여성실업자의 재취업 가능성이 점점 낮아지는 부적기간의존성(negative duration dependence)을 보였다. 둘째, 실업기간 결정요인 분석을 살펴보면, 개인적 변수에서는 교육수준이 높을수록, 기혼일수록, 비가구주일수록 실업기간이 길게 나타남에 따라 여성노동시장의 구조적 수급불균형과 경력단절현상을 살펴볼 수 있었다. 전직 노동시장 변수에서는 전직 임금이 높을수록, 전직 직종이 도소매ㆍ음식숙박업일수록 실업기간이 길게 나타남에 따라 전직 노동시장특성이 여성실업자의 능력 및 생산성의 신호(Signal)로 작용하고 있었고, 직업의 성분리 구조에 의해 노동시장에서 여성실업자의 지위가 점차 열악해지고 있음을 확인할 수 있었다. 제도적 변수에서는 고용보험에 비가입할수록, 법정퇴직금이 존재할수록 실업기간이 길게 나타났다. 셋째, 재취업한 여성임금근로자 중 정규근로자는 196명 66.78%, 비정규근로자는 97명 33.22%로 나타났다. 넷째, 재취업형태 결정요인 분석을 살펴보면, 개인적 변수에서는 15-24세에 비해 40-49세일수록, 교육수준이 낮을수록, 전직 노동시장 변수에서는 전직 고용형태가 비정규직일수록, 전직 직종이 생산직(단순노무직)일수록, 제도적 변수에서는 고용보험에 비가입자일수록, 실업기간 변수에서는 실업기간이 길어질수록 비정규직 고용형태로 재취업할 가능성이 높게 나타났다. 특히 여성직종과 불안정한 고용형태를 경험하였거나 고용보험가입의 혜택을 받지 못했던 여성실업자들이 다시 불안정한 고용형태로 재취업할 가능성이 매우 유의미하게 높게 나타남에 따라 성차별과 맞물린 사회구조적인 영향력에 의해 여성을 중심으로 비정규직 매몰가능성이 심화되고 있음을 알수 있었다. 본 연구를 통한 정책적 함의를 도출하면 다음과 같다. 첫째, 여성취업의 지속성이 보장될 수 있는 기반이 조성되어야 할 것이다. 즉 출산ㆍ양육과 관련된 출산휴가 및 육아휴직, 보육서비스 지원 및 공공성 강화 등의 보육관련정책이 여성의 재취업과 고용안정성에 대한 유인으로 작용할 수 있어야 할 것이다. 둘째, 여성실업자를 위한 고용지원정책이 다각적 측면에서 수립되어야 할 것이다. 여성실업자의 고용가능성(employability)을 높이기 위해 여성 대상별로 적합한 직종을 개발하여 특화된 직업훈련을 실시하고 고용정보망을 확충해야 할 것이다. 셋째, 노동시장에서 구조적인 성차별을 감소시킬 수 있는 방안이 마련되어야 할 것이다. 여성 근로자가 재취업하기 위한 고용기회의 불평등과 진입 후 채용ㆍ승진ㆍ보직ㆍ임금등에서의 차별 및 부당해고를 당하지 않도록 성차별 감독을 강화하는 직접적인 규제 뿐만 아니라 적극적 조치, 고용평등 교육 및 홍보등의 정책이 함께 전개되어야 할 것이다. 넷째, 사회통합적 차원에서 비정규직 보호대책이 수립되어야 할 것이다. 비정규직 여성근로자를 보호하기 위해 생계, 의료, 교육 등의 기초적인 사회보장, 동일노동에 대한 동일임금제공, 정규직과의 격차를 줄이기 위한 법제도의 정비 및 법 적용의 강화 등이 조속히 이루어져야 할 것이다. ;Although the quantitative side of women's participation in economic activities has dramatically increased, this quantitative growth did not connect to qualitative improvement of employment. In particular, since the economic crisis women's disappointing unemployment and employment insecurity has aggravated, and unemployment and employment policy has been evolved around men along with the change in the female labor market structure and characteristics, which have resulted in even more deteriorated position of women in the labor market. Regarding these current situation, this study has been attempted to find the basic directions of the policies on women's unemployment and employment that can reflect unemployed women's characteristics by conducting a positive analysis on women's duration of unemployment and their re-employment pattern. This analysis was conducted with the Cox Proportional Hazards Regression Model and Logistic Regression Analysis using the Korean Labor and Income Panel Study's data of the 5th year (2002) that was researched by Korea Labor Institute and investigating into the structure and characteristics of women's labor market. The result of this study's analysis can be summarized into the followings. Firstly. the reemployment possibility of the unemployed women's went to the highest at the time of immediate after losing their jobs, and it showed the negative duration dependence where the longer unemployment period is, the lower the re-employment possibility of unemployment women's. Secondly, looking into the analysis on the factors that determine the unemployment duration, in general factors, it showed that unemployment duration was longer in women who were married and non-householder, which indicated the structural imbalance in supply and demand of female labor market and career interruption. In the factors of labor markets for the job change , it showed that the features of theis former occupation was working as a signal to the abilities of unemployment women and their productivities, as the duration unemployment lasted longer when their wage from the former occupation was higher and the occupational fields were more related to retail and wholesale/restaurant and lodging. Furthermore, unemployed women's position in the labor market was getting more deteriorated by the sexual segregation structure of jobs. In the systematic variables, the unemployment duration was longer in those who hold less employment insurance and more retirement grants provided by law. Thirdly, among the re-employed women, the number of full-time workers were 196 (66.78%) and that of part-time workers were 97(33.22%). Fourthly, looking into the factors that determine the pattern of re-employment, in personal variables, the possibility of re-employment was higher in the age group of 40-49 compared to that of 15 - 24 and in lower level of education. In the labor market for the job change, the possibility was higher in those who had previous jobs that were irregular and simple producing forms. In systematic variables, the possibility was higher in those who were non members of employment insurance while in the unemployment, and in duration variables, the possibility was higher in those who have been in longer unemployment duration. As the women in particular who have experienced the female -specific kinds of job and unstable form of employment or have not received the benefit of employment insurance, it has shown that the re-employment possibility was significantly higher in unstable forms, and the possibility of being buried into irregular positions especially for women by the social structural influence in conjunction with worsened sexual discrimination. The policy implications through this study are as follows. First of all, the base that can assure the continuity of women's employment should be established. That is to say, childcare policies such as maternal leaves, temporary retirement for childcare related to giving birth and raising children, childcare service and reinforcement of public supports should be opearated as an inducement for women's re-employment and employment stability. Secondly, employment support policy for unemployed women should be established in various aspects. In order to enhance the employability of unemployed women, suitable type of occupation targeting women have to be developed, specialized vocational training should be given and employment information network should be expanded. Thirdly, measures to decrease the structural sexual discrimination in the labor market should be established. Not only discrimination in employment opportunities for female workers to be re-employed, discrimination in employment, promotion, position and wage security, but also direct regulation that reinforces monitoring on sexual discrimination to prevent women from unfair lay-offs as well as active action taking, education on the equality in employment and promotion policy have to be conducted at the same time. Fourthly, measures to protect part-time employees should be established on the level of social integration. In order to protect female workers with irregular type of employment, basic social security such as living, medical care and education, payment of same wage for the same labor, improvement on legal system to reduce the gap between regular and irregular employment and reinforcement of law will have to take place as soon as possible.
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