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고령자의 취업 욕구에 관한 연구

고령자의 취업 욕구에 관한 연구
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대학원 사회복지학과
이화여자대학교 사회복지대학원
This study set out to investigate the desire for employment of the aged in an empirical research and identify the factors influencing their desire. The summary of the research on the desire for employment of the aged was as follows; the general characteristics of the respondents were first examined. As for gender, more male senior citizens had interest in employment than female ones. The age group from 70 to 79 accounted for the biggest portion of the respondents. In general, it was understood that those senior citizens under 70 had much interest in job hunting. To the question asking about their health, most of them said that their health was better than average. That is, their general evaluation of their physical conditions was positive. Then the reasons they were finding a job were asked. A half of them mentioned the economic reasons, and the other half wanted to find the meaning of life by maintaining their health and doing social activities. That result matched their high attitude toward work, which was to pursue happiness and rewarding feelings from work. That attitude of higher frequency is to be introduced later. They were also asked why they hadn't get a job yet. The biggest number of them said that there were lacking jobs, which required for the active efforts by the government, which should be responsible for their employment and lead the programs to create jobs for them. The second most-mentioned reason was their old age. But it is not right for them to be rejected just because they are old despite their strong health. It reflects the social tendency of age discriminations, because of which those who are healthy are suffering from their age in landing a job. Next it was asked if they had a job training. More than half answered no. The total average points of their attitude toward work were very high, which showed that even though they were old, they wished to lead their life on their own rather than depending on their children or others. The average points of their attitude toward work were higher than those of their desire for employment, which explained that those with a higher attitude toward work had their desire lost much after facing with the barrier of the reality. Their attitude toward work had important impacts on the desire for employment. Higher attitudes toward work means less dependency on others. Thus those with higher attitudes toward work should receive a job training and get a help so that their living can be secured. The old report that a job training didn't have influences on the desire for employment of the aged can be explained in the way that they didn't get many chances to participate in a job training and that the impacts of a job training would have been much if their participation rates had been high. The study was intended to present some helpful information to establishing policies for the desire for employment of the aged by doing a practical and detailed research of their desire for work. The implications of the results were as follows; First, the age of the aged doesn't affect the desire for employment. Thus such policies as can respond to their health or working capacity should be set up for the aged. Second, even though the responsibility of the aged for their children has not changed, the children's duty to support their old parents has been reduced much. The old people don't want to depend on their children, either, wanting to lead their life for themselves. Therefore, the employment of the aged will alleviate the conflicts between the generations like a buffer. Third, increasing the change of a job training will have positive impacts on the employment of the aged.;본 연구는 고령자의 취업욕구를 실증적으로 파악하고 그것을 바탕으로 고령자의 취업욕구에 영향을 미치는 요인을 살펴보아서 고령자를 위한 취업정책을 수립하는데 실증적인 자료를 제공함을 목적으로 하고 있다. 본 연구의 대상은 서울시중앙고령자취업알선센터를 이용하는 취업욕구가 있는 60세 이상의 고령자 209명이다. 본 연구의 독립변수는 인구사회학적 상황, 경제적 상황, 건강상태, 직업교육훈련, 일에 대한 태도이며 종속변수는 취업욕구인데, 연구방법은 SPSS 11.0을 이용하여 빈도분석, 신뢰도분석, T테스트, 아노바, 상관관계, 회의분석을 이용하였다. 분석결과를 정리하면 다음과 같다. 첫째, 고령자의 취업욕구에 관한 일반적인 사항을 정리하면 고령자의 취업욕구는 남성이 여성보다 앞도적으로 높게 나타났고, 60-70대까지도 자녀에게 생활비를 부담하고 있는 고령자수가 절반이 넘었다. 건강상태에 대해서는 고령자 대부분 보통이상이라고 응답할 정도로 자신의 건강에 대해서 긍정적이 평가를 하고 있었다. 취업을 원하는 이유는 절반이상이 경제적인 이유로 대답하였고, 취업을 하지 못하는 것은 일자리가 부족하기 때문이라고 대답하였다. 직업교육을 받아보았냐는 질문에는 절반이상이 받아본적이 없다고 대답하였다. 고령자의 일에 대한 태도는 평균값 이상으로 매우 높았다. 둘째, 고령자의 취업욕구에 관해서 집단간 차이를 살펴보면 생활비를 부담하고 있는 자녀가 있을수록 취업욕구가 높게 나타났고, 일에 대한 태도와 건강상태에 따라서 고령자의 취업욕구 차이가 유의미하였다. 셋째, 취업욕구와 각 독립변수간의 상관관계를 살펴보면, 취업욕구와 일에대한 태도는 가장 높은 정적인 상관관계를 나타냈고, 건강상태, 생활비를 부담하고 있는 자녀수도 정적인 상관관계를 나타냈다. 넷째, 고령자의 취업욕구에 영향을 미치는 요인은 일에 대한 태도, 건강상태, 생활비를 두담하고 있는 자녀수 순으로 나타났다. 그 외에 취업욕구에 영향을 미칠 것이라고 예상했던 성별, 연령, 교육수준, 특별한 보호가 필요한 자녀수, 배우자소득, 자녀소득, 교육훈련 같은 변수는 취업욕구에 영향을 미치는 정도가 유의미하지 않는 것으로 조사되었다.
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