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윤이상의 오페라「나비의 미망인」(Die Witwe des Schmetterings)에 관한 연구

윤이상의 오페라「나비의 미망인」(Die Witwe des Schmetterings)에 관한 연구
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대학원 음악학부
이화여자대학교 대학원
윤이상(1917-1995)은 관현악, 실내악, 독주곡, 오페라, 합창곡 등 다양한 장르에 걸쳐 150여 곡의 작품을 남긴 작곡가이다. 그의 음악 언어의 토대인 '주요음기법'과 동양적인 소재와 사상의 사용은 독특한 그만의 음악을 잘 보여주었다. 본 논문은 윤이상의 오페라「나비의 미망인」(Die Witwe des Schmetterings, 1968)에 나타난 가사와 음악의 관계를 분석, 연구한다. 즉, 가사와 음악의 연관관계, 시를 음악화 하는 과정에서 발생하는 선율, 리듬, 화성의 재창조의 변화를 분석, 연구하여 나비의 미망인에 나타나는 윤이상의 음악어법에 대하여 학문적으로 입증하고자 한다. 제 Ⅱ장에서는 윤이상의 생애를 알아보고 총 5기로 분류된 작곡 활동시기의 작품을 정리해 본 후, 그의 오페라들을 간략히 열거하고자 한다. 또한 그의 음악을 이해하기 위하여 우선 그의 음악기법에 관하여 이해하고자 한다. 제 Ⅲ장에서는「나비의 미망인」(Die Witwe des Schmetterings)의 작곡배경과 대본의 특징 및 줄거리를 알아본 후, '주요음기법'이 작품에 어떻게 나타났는지를 제시하고 이를 토대로 하여 가사와 음악의 연관관계를 분석, 연구하고자 한다. 결론으로는 가사와 음악을 분석한 결과로 「나비의 미망인」에 나타난 윤이상만의 음악적 특징을 제시하고자 한다. 본 논문에서의 음악분석은 작품의 이해와 성악연주에 도움이 될 수 있는 분석을 시도할 것이다. 이를 통하여 윤이상의 음악에 대한 이해의 폭이 넓어지길 바라며, 오페라「나비의 미망인」(Die Witwe des Schmetterings)을 처음 접하거나 연주하는 분들에게 직접적인 도움이 되길 바란다. ;Isang Yun (1917-1995) was one of the great composers of the twentieth century, who wrote more than 150 pieces of various genre including orchestral, chamber, solo instrumental, choral and opera. His Haupttone technique, or the foundation of Yun's musical language, and his unique application of Eastern culture to music, represent the unique ground of his music. This thesis is an analysis of and research on the relationship between the libretto and music in Yun's oper「Butterfly Widow」(Die Witwe des Schemetterings). To be more specific, the writer analyzed and researched the relationship between text and music, and the changes in recreation of melody, rhythm, and harmony for the musicalization of poetry. The research in general was a practical approach to understand the musical language of Isang Yun within Butterfly Widow. In Chapter II, the writer briefly mentions Yun's life and subdivides his musical works and activities into five chronological periods, with short comments on his operas. Also, to further understand his music, the writer researches his Haupttone technique and how the technique was applied in Butterfly Widow. In Chapter III, the research covers the background information to the libretto, lyrical peculiarity, and synopsis plot of Butterfly Widow, on which the analysis of the relationship between lyrics and music was based. In conclusion, the writer presents Isang Yun's unique musical characteristics within Butterfly Widow as a result of analyzing the text and music. Yun' s musical characteristics which were discovered are as follows: 1. Butterfly Widow has Taoist ideas. Taoist factors are discovered in its music as well as the libretto. Both orchestral and vocal parts of the opera achieve a harmony of Yin and Yang in terms of melody, harmony, rhythm, and structure. 2. Haupttone technique, Yun's musical language, is well represented in the orchestra and vocal parts. Yun wrote each scene using his peculiar musical language with various changes such as 'beginning of the vibration', 'refreshing of the center', and 'fading of the vibration.' 3. Nonghyun technique, a technique of Korean traditional music, was employed in various ways, including tremolo, trill, and glissando, increasing dramatic factors in each scene. 4. Yun used various applications of vocal technique. His broad use of vocal technique includes cantilena, parlando, recitative, ornamentations, sounds with grace notes, and pure notes, all of which contribute to the character development. 5. For better communication with the audience, an important factor in comedy, the rhythm of the vocal line was carefully adjusted to fit the unique nuance of German language and dialogic style of melody was frequently adopted. 6. Yun used many rhythmic elements. In particular, he adopted trills, and tremolos lasting between one half to more than three measures, frequent ornamentation, changing or successive groups of triplets, and even quintuplets or sextuplets. 7. Orchestra and vocal parts are of equal importance throughout. They are not only equal in length and strength, but also clearly independent. Orchestral interludes, such as delusive music of the dream in the introduction, the presentation of Tschuag-tse's raging wind, his long journey in Chapter 3, and the funeral in Chapter 5, play important roles in the opera. This research and analysis of text and music in Butterfly Widow (Die Witwe des Schmetterings) may be a useful and meaningful step in understanding the musical world of Isang Yun. The writer sincerely recommends further research on this great composer of our time, and more frequent musical performances of his works.
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