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道德槪念發達에 影響을 미치는 Modeling 效果

道德槪念發達에 影響을 미치는 Modeling 效果
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(A) Study on the modeling effects in developing children's moral concepts
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대학원 가정관리학과
이화여자대학교 대학원
本硏究는 어린이의 道德 槪念 發達에 있어서, Piaget의 認知的 理論과 Bandura & McDonald의 杜會學習 理論의 妥當性을 糾明하고자 어린이의 道德 槪念 發達에 Modeling이 어떠한 效果를 미치는가를 實驗的으로 硏究한 것이다. Bandura & McDonald가 Piaget의 認知的 理論을 檢討하기 爲해 1963年에 行한 實驗的 硏究를 本 硏究에서 節次上에 多少 變化를 加하면서 反復해 봄으로써 果然 어느 理論이 옳은가를 살펴보았다. 本硏究는 Piaget, Kohlberg, Bandura & McDonald의 見解에 따라 다섯가지의  說(p.28. 參照)을 세우고, 前實驗, Modeling段階, 그리고 後實驗의 세 殷階的 實驗을 通해서 그 가설을 檢證해 보았다. 本 實驗의 被驗對象으로는 홍익 북國民學校 2學年과 5學年 全學年生으로, 前實驗에서 360名, Modeling段階에서 37名, 後實驗에서 66名이었으며, 本 硏究는 1972年 10月~1973年 11月에 이루어진 것이다. 前實驗에서 彼驗者에게 두 나쁜 어린이에 對한 問項을 주고서 더 나쁜 어린이의 이름과 그 選擇에 對한 理由를 說明하도록 했다. 이와 같은 資料를 分析해서, 大部分을 意圖的으로 判斷한 被驗者는 高水準으로 分類하고, 反面 大部分을 結果的으로 判斷한 被驗者는 低水準으로 分類했다. 두 주일 後에, 2學年에서 低水準과 高水準을 各各 10名씩 標準하고, 5學年에서 低水準 7名과 高水準 10名을 標準해서 모두 37名의 彼驗者에게反對 水準으로 Modeling을 주었다. 成人 모델이 低水準에게는 高水準으로 反應하고, 高水準에게는 低水準으로 反應했던 것이다. 이때에는, 彼驗者에게는 前實驗의 問項에 變形을 加해서 만든 問項을 주었고, 모델에게는 前實驗의 問項을 주었다. 다시 두 주일 後에 後實驗이 모델을 보여줬던 Modeling 集團과 모델을 보여주지 않았던 統制 集團에게 實施되었다. 前實驗에서 行해졌면 問項을 그 問項 內에서도 順序를 바꾸었고, 問項과 問項의 順序도 바꾸어서 實施했다. 이와 같은 實驗에서 얻어진 結果는 다음과 같다. ① 高年齡層의 어린이들이 低年齡層의 어린이들 보다 動機的 判斷(自律的인 判斷)을 많이 하고 있다. ② 어린이의 道德 槪念의 發達 水準은 Modeling을 通해서 變容되었다. ③ Modeling의 效果는 年齡殷階에 拘碍됨이 없이 어느 年齡에서나 惹起되었다. ④ Modeling의 效果는 高水準의 兒童들에게 보다는 低水準의 兒童들에게 더 많이 나타 났다. ⑤ 兒童들의 道德 槪念 發達 水準은 交友數와 關係가 없었다. 이 實驗의 結果 Piaget의 主張은 部分的으로 支持되나, 全體的으로 보면 Kohlberg와 Bandura & McDonald의 理論에 一致를 보았다. 따라서 이제는 Piaget의 認知的 理論에도 修正을 要하는 時期가 온 것 같다.;A Study on the modeling effects in developing children's moral concepts. The purpose of this study was to examine the empirical validity of Piaget's cognitive theory and the social learning theory of Bandura & McDonald on moral development of children through an experimental design. In consideration of the previous studies on the theme, this study was hypothesized as follows; 1. In moral judgements, older children will make their judgements more frequently on the basis of intentionality than younger children. 2. The developmental level of moral concept in children will be modified by modeling operation. 3. Modeling effects will be induced regardless of their chronological ages. 4. However, the amount of modeling effects will be greater on the children of lower level than on the children of higher level of moral concepts. 5. According to Kohlberg, there will be no close relation between the developmental level of moral concepts and the number of their friends. Three experiments were conducted to investigate these hypotheses. Experiment Ⅰ(Pre-test) used 360 subjects, experiment Ⅱ (modeling-test) used 37 subjects, and experiment Ⅲ(post-test) used 66 subjects. They were the pupils in 2nd and 5th grade who were attending Hong-Ik Buk Primary School in Seoul, Korea. The full schedule of these experiment was performed from Oct. 1972. , to Nov. 1973. The procedures of three experiments were as follows; In experiment Ⅰ(pre-test), the subjects were asked to respond to each items of questionnaire containing 6 pair of stories. Each story contains 2 children, one of whom brings about greater harm inspite of his good intention and the other makes in reality smaller harm inspite of his bad intention. The task required to the subjects were to name the naughtier child of the two heroes and to explain the reason of his selection. On the basis of their scores of pre-test the subjects were divided into 2 groups ; one group was the children of lower level of moral concepts, and the other was of higher level. Thereafter, they were subdivided into the experimental group(modeling group) and the control group respectively. Two weeks after the pre-test, the experiment Ⅱ(modeling-test) was conducted. On this stage the subjects of experimental groups were exposed to adult model responding toward the opposite direction to the previous response of the subjects, so that the children of higher level were to be "conditioned" down while the children of lower level were to be "conditioned" up. The model was a female student majoring in home economics. Two weeks after the modeling-test, experiment Ⅲ(post-test) was given in similar way to experiment Ⅰ(pre-test). The results of three experiment confirmed all of hypotheses. These imply that the levels of moral development children are not age-specific, but can be, as Bandura & McDonald claimed, modified by modeling. Consequently, it seems that Piaget's cognitive theory, especially his assertion of age-specificity of moral development, should be revised, even though the result has shown the partial support of his theory. The results suggest that the external stimulation, such as effective modeling by adults must be needed in order to facilitate the model development in children.
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