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韓國 産業化期의 이데올로기적 基盤으로서의 家族構造에 관한 硏究

Title
韓國 産業化期의 이데올로기적 基盤으로서의 家族構造에 관한 硏究
Other Titles
(A) Study of the Family Structure as the Ideological Infrastructure during the Industrializational Period in Korea
Authors
朴禎媛
Issue Date
1993
Department/Major
대학원 정치외교학과
Keywords
한국산업화기이데올로기가족구조
Publisher
이화여자대학교 대학원
Degree
Master
Advisors
陳德奎
Abstract
이 글은 韓國 3.4공화국 시기의 統治 이데올로기와 家族構造와의 聯關性을모색하기 위해서 쓰여졌다. 朴正熙 統治體制는 軍事 쿠데타로 政權을 장악한 후 經濟 自立의 수립을 주장하면서 이른바 祖國 近代化를 최우선 과제로 하여 政府 主導의 급속한 産業化 정책들을 추진해 나갔다. 이 과정에서 朴正熙는 非 合法的 體制成立을 正當化시키고 權力을 持續시키기 위해 그 당시의 對,內外的 危機 狀況을 구실로 하여 權威主義的 支配 이데올로기를 固着化시켰다. 따라서 1960,70년대의 韓國 社會는 經濟構造의 變動과 社會 全 영역에서의 급격한 變動을 수반하게 되었던 시기이다. 現代 社會에서의 家族集團 역시 社會, 經濟 構造의 파생물인 까닭에 이 시기의 상황에 따라 급격한 변화를 보여주었다. 즉. 核家族 비율의 현저한 증가, 都市化와 工業化에 따른 農民家族의 分解 현상을 나타냄으로써 韓國 家族은 産業社會에 적합한 안정적 下位體系로서의 經濟的 기능을 수행할 수 있었다. 그러나 核家族化에 적합한 家族과 관련된 價値觀의 변화, 즉 夫婦 중심의 家族 關係線, 兩系性, 自由意思에 따르는 婚姻 등은 수반되지 않았다. 이 현장은 家族構造의 표현인 相續制度, 居住規定, 婚姻規定을 통해 확인된다. 이러한 韓國 家族構造의 屬性은 朱予學의 유입으로 宗法制가 실시된 이후 정착된 前 近代的 家族制度의 殘在가 家族法에서 뿐만아니라 개개인의 意識속에 남아 있음으로 해서 형성된 韓國 家族主義의 특징이라고 할 수 있다. 즉 일체의 價値가 家族 集團의 유지를 목적으로 이루어지는 家族主義的 행위양식의 일반적 성격 이외에도 韓國 家族主義는 그와같은 가치체계의 外部 社會로의 擴散,지나친 家 中心主義,집단 구성원 간의 垂直的 人間關係를 그 특징으로 보여주고 있다. 특히, 祭祀相續의 원리에 종속되어 나타나게 되는 長子優待 不均等 相續,居住規定과 관련되는 直系家族 形態,지나친 血緣主義를 원칙으로 하는 同性同本 不婚律 등은 그와같은 의식의 구체화된 표현임과 동시에 韓國 家族主義를 유지시키는 근간이 되어 왔다. 이러한 家族主義를 더욱 강화시키는 요인으로 작용했던 것이 바로 朴正熙 정권기의 지배 이데올로기였다고 볼 수 있다. 표면적으로 내세운 이 시기의 이데올로기가 民族主義, 反共, 行政的 民主主義(혹은 韓國的 民主主義)였다면 그 本質은 개인의 自由와 平等을 제한하는 權威主義 이데올로기였으며 그 이념적 기반으로 작용했던 것은 忠孝思想위 政治 이데올로기적 變容과 大衆 動員 手段으로서의 새마을 운동이었다. 支配 이데올로기는 그 성격상 韓國 家族主義와의 選擇的 親和 樣相을 보여주었는데 그 결과는 다음과 같다. 첫째, 孝思想의 강조로 인한 血緣主義 의식의 强化,둘째, 忠 思想의 강조와 抑壓的인 이데올로기의 制度的 裝置로 인한 權威主義 强化 세째, 새마을운동을 통한 家族主義의 기본 가치인 집단주의의 형성 등이었다. 그 결과 韓國 家族主義는 발전적 의미의 平等指向的 共同體主義로 나아가기 보다는 血緣主義,地域主義,權威主義를 수반한 排他的 集團主義를 초래했다. 뿐만아니라 그와같은 성격들은 현재까지도 韓國 政治 社會를 지배하는 政治文化로 정착되었다. 결론적으로, 본격적인 産業化期의 韓圍 家族構造는 형태상의 변화를 보여줌으로써, 좌파 이론가들의 논리대로 資本主義 再生産에 적합한 기능들을 수행할 수 있었을 뿐만아니라 權威主義 支配 이데올로기를 지속시켜 國家를 강화시킬 수 있는 안정된 기반으로 존재하는 二重性을 드러내었다.;The purpose of this thesis is to study 3 correlation between a political ideology and a family structure as a part of culture during the Park,Jung-Hee regime in Korea. Justifying his decision by nationalism, President Park,Jung-Hee who had overthrown a civil government by 5.16 military coup d'etat, took national modernization as the nest urgent task for economic independence. and caught out his policies of rapid governmental initiated industrialization. In this process. President Park consolidated an authoritarian ideology, "Korean Democracy", on the pretext of both domestic and foriegn critical situations of those days since he had wanted to justify and maintain his unlawful seizure of the political power, and then had authoritarianism permeate through all individuals' conciousness. Therefore the Korean society in the 1950's and 1970's underwent rapid changes in overall spheres of society as well as in economic structure. Families in Korea also changed rapidly because the family in a modern society is the infrastructure of social and economic systems. That is to say, showing an increase in the nuclear family rate and the disintegration of rural families according urbanization and industrialization, the family has perform economic functions as a social sub-structure accustomed to a modern capitalistic state. But the fundamental nature of the Korean family did not change. The values proper to the nuclear family trend, for example conjugal centered relationship among family members, complete freedom of marriage, and equality of sexes, were not accompanied. We can verify this phenomenon by researching family systems including inheritance rules, residence rules after marriage, and customs related to marriage, which represent family structure. I expounded the nature of family as korean familism formulated by executing chinese clan rules after the end of Koryo(an ancient Korean state). In that result the Korean familism has controlled the individual consciousness as well as the family law that is a part of our pre-modernistic vestige. While the general concept of familism can be defined as "all of the value systems of family members exist only for preservation and succession of family", several characteristics are added to Korean familism ; firstly, the spread of such value systems to an outer society, secondly, the extreme family-centered tendency, and lastly, the vortical human relations among group members. Especially, the disproportioned primorgeniture, the lineal family form, and the taboo on marriage between the people of the sane surnames and the sane family origins caused by excessive stress on consanguinity are the proofs of such consciousness based on Korean familism. The political ideology in Park's regime helped to intensify Korean familism as an ideology or a latent culture. While superficial dominant ideologies were nationalism, anti-communism, and administrative democracy(later renamed the Korean Democracy), the substantial nature was authoritarianism that limited individual freedom and equality. And those substantial ideologies in that time were operated by means of and based upon ideas of loyalty and filial piety and the Saemaul movement by which the dominant group could mobilize people easily. I used a tern "selective affinity" to express the aspect of interchange between the dominant ideology and Korean familism. The concrete characteristics of relationships and results were as follows. The first was intensification of consanguinity consciousness resulted from the emphasis of filial piety. The second was application of such familism to the public by the emphasis of loyalty. The third was consolidation of authoritarianism through institutional devices of oppressive ideologies. And the last characteristic was the formation of a collectivism, a sic concept of the familism, through the Saemaul movement. Consequently, Korean familism resulted in exclusive collectivism accompanied by consanguinity consciousness, localism, and authoritarianism rather than an equality-oriented communal society. Besides, those characteristics have been fixed as a primary political culture to dominate the political society in Korea until now. In conclusion. I found that, showing changes in its form, Korean family structure during the period of full-scale industrialization had revealed its dual roles not only to perform the functions suitable fer the reproduction of a capitalism as Marxists assert tut also to exist as a stable foundation to strengthen the nation by maintaining the authoritarian dominant ideology.
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