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名譽毁損에 대한 私法的 救濟

名譽毁損에 대한 私法的 救濟
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(A) study on Libel as Tort
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대학원 법학과
이화여자대학교 대학원
In present society, there are many cases that right to his good name are invaded. This proposes to study various aspects of libel case involving mass communication media. This thesis is to clarify the types of invasions, the conditions necessary to relive damages, and means of remedy a vailable in private law by reviewing cases in Korea and other contries as well as academic theories related to the invasions of his good name. A person has a right to his good name. If another person blemishes that name, the injured person has right to seek redress the harm against which the libel law guards is injury to plaintiff's social reputation. This paper reviewed that under the continental law system his good name were derived from roman law and were developed during the medieval age and were enacted in German civil law. German civil law, however, admitted only some types of human rights such as name, health, body etc, and after World War Ⅱ the concept of general human rights was acknowleged by academic theories and Judicial precedents. This paper reviewd the invasions of reputation by the press and its remedies in civil law. In defamation, the important legal theory is supported by court rulling which states that although the contents of the press articles are defamatory, if the report information is for public interest and the facts contained within are proved true, the report is not illegal. In the modern society, most of the libel cases are caused by mass communication media. The mass media also have to take the legal risk in case they publish libelous statements. The libel law can be both defender and restrainer of free speach. The law at times prevents full and complete discussion of matters of various concern. If the facts were not proved to be true but there are reasonable causes to believe that the facts are true, then there is no intention or fault in that reporting. The right of fair comment is th right of th press to comment freely, fairly, and honestly on public issues. To be fair, the facts on which a comment is based must be accurate. So, the fairness of the comment often depends on fairness of the reporting. Remedies are accomplished by for different methods. The first is the remedy in Korean civil law that is reparation for damages. The second is injunction. In our country, there is no controversy about injunction in judicial procedure concerning press invasions, but that is an important remedy. The third is the right to request for correction prescribed in the fundamental press law and the cases which are admitted or rejected by the Korean press arbitration commission and court are reviewed. The four is restoration method. But the Constitution Court of Korea gave the judgement that general court odered the party publish anapo ogy in a newspaper. Conclusively we must keep in mind that the freedom of press and publication cannot be infringed upon in oder to protect reputation. These are both ideals of modern democratic society, and they hold the key to the problems.;資本主義의 高度化와 신문·방송등의 매스 미디어가 비약적으로 발달함에 따라 개인의 名譽나 프라이버시를 보호할 필요가 매우 절실하게 되었다. 憲法 第21條 第4項은 『言論·出版은 他人의 名譽나 權利 또는 公衆道德이나 社會論理를 침해하여서는 아니된다. 言論出版이 他人의 名譽나 權利를 侵害한 때에는 被害者는 이에 대한 被害의 賠償을 請求할 수 있다』고 規定하고 있다. 이러한 憲法規定은 현대사회에 있어서 특히 言論·出版의 自由가 가지고 있는 중요성과 아울러 人間의 名譽도 소중함을 밝혀 주는 것이라고 하겠다. 특히 現代의 不法行爲法의 동향은 財産權保護偏重에서 벗어나 人間의 生存權과 人格權에 대해 그 배려를 더욱 强化하는 경향이 있다. 종래의 民法은 財産的利益 특히 物權의 保護에 편중하고 精神的 損害의 賠償에 대해서는 그리 적극적이 아니었다. 現代生活에 있어서는 有體만이 아니라 名譽나 信用과 같은 無體財産權도 아울러 保護를 받아야 하게 되었으며 그 비중이 날로 커지는 추세에 있다. 이 硏究는 어떤 侵害行爲가 있을 때 名譽毁損이 成立하느냐의 문제, 외형상 名譽毁損行爲에 해당한다 하더라도 그 行爲가 眞實性과 公共性을 갖추어 不法行爲가 성립하지 않는 경우 즉 名譽毁損의 免責事由의 문제, 名譽의 侵害가 있었을 경우 그 救濟手段을 論하는 것을 중심으로 하고 있다. 특히 名譽毁損의 救濟手段을 중심으로 하여 一般的인 救濟方法인 損害 賠償과 慰藉料額의 적정화와 學說上 必要性이 인정되고 있는 禁止請求權 定期刊行物의 登錄등에 관한 法律上의 訂正報道請求權, 憲法栽判所에서 違憲決定이 내린 바 있는 謝罪廣告에 관해 논하고자 한다. 良心의 自由와 관련하여 謝罪廣告에 대한 違憲決定이 있음으로써 名譽毁損에 대해서 實質的으로 慰藉料의 請求와 訂正報道請諸求權의 行使에 의할 수 밖에 없는바, 名譽毁損의 판단에 있어서는 言論의 自由와 言論의 公的責任, 그리고 個人의 名譽保護의 三者를 충분히 比較衛量하여 合理的인 杜會規範으로서 작용할 수 있도록 하여야 한다.
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