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朝鮮後期 南宗文人畵에 미친 芥子園畵傳의 영향

Title
朝鮮後期 南宗文人畵에 미친 芥子園畵傳의 영향
Other Titles
(The) influence of Chieh-tzu-yuan hua-chuan upon southern school literati painting of the late period Choson Dynasty
Authors
金明仙
Issue Date
1991
Department/Major
대학원 미술사학과
Keywords
조선후기남종문인화개자원화전미술사학
Publisher
이화여자대학교 대학원
Degree
Master
Advisors
유준영
Abstract
Chieh-tzu-yuan hua-chuan(芥子園畵傳) was at first made by an intention of Li yu(李漁 : 1611-1680), a playwriter of Ching(淸), to present anyone who loves landscape but cannot draw it. Some types that were wanted in drawing landscape painting, so that they can draw it by themselves and enjoy the happiness of Woyou(臥遊) by appreciating the painting. Just in time, his son-in-law Shen yin bo(沈因伯) had a landscape painting album(山水畵譜) handed down in Shen's family which was collected by Li liu fang(李流芳 : 1575-1629) but not published yet, so he asked Wang Kai (王槪 : 1645-1710), a Ching Painter, to compile with additions and published the ealiest 5 volumes(Landscape compilation) at 1679. This original 5 volumes made of landscape painting compilation, include may arts of drawing, itemized in arts of drawing trees, arts of drawing mountain and stones, etc. which had been done by each famous painters of chinese successive generations. So, it became to fill the role of an essential textbook for who wanted to draw landscape. And next, succeeding this earliest compilation, the second compilation was published, equipped with Nan-Zook-Mae-Wha album(蘭竹梅花譜), Cho-Choog-Wha-Whuei(草蟲花卉) and Young-Mo-Wha-Whuei album(翎毛花卉譜). It was 1701, 22 years had passed since the first compilation was published. The original text of this second compilation was asked to Zhu sheng(諸昇) in Nan-Zook and Wang zhi(王質) in Mae-Kook-Wha-Whuei. And the compliation with additions and copies was undertook by three brothers of Wang's(王) family. The reason why the second compilation was so long delayed since the: first clued to the careful concern of publisher who wanted to ask a great master of carving a seal for the better woodblock album. In Chieh-tzu-yuan hua-chuan made under the circumstances like this, the first landscape album is specially a synthetic album, having a chariteristic of the southern school literati painting more than any other album which was published since Tung-Chi-chang(董其昌 : 1555-1636) had advanced a theory of the Northern and Southern Schools. With a great sensation of the southern school literati painting in the artist's world of Ching, Chieh-tzu-yuan hua-chuan also became one of the important picture albums and in Choson it began to be received slowly, with the southern literati painting, a new style of painting, in the late Choson Dynasty. The process of accepting Chieh-tzu-yuan hua-chuan can be sumed up as follows. Some literal sources shows that this huapu was accepted about the early 18th century only by minority, that is Cho Young Suk(1686-1761), Lee Ha Gon(1677-1724), Jeong Sun(1676-1759) and so forth, who were members of Paek-Ak-Ye-Lim centered around Kim Chmg Up(1658-1722) of An-Dong Kim's family, who had taked in Chinese culture more than anyone else at that time. But, by investigating paintings present now, I could find out that the man who had applied it to his real works and showed it's influence on them was Jeong Sun, a specialist in painting. Cho Young Suk and Lee Ha Gon seems to have come into contact with chieh-tzu-yuan hua-chuan according to the liteal sources, but in fact their works do not shows it's influence. But in some of Cho Young Suk's works in has early stage after the earliest acceptance state, its influence could be picked out a little. After this, in the middle of the 18th century, taking of this huapu was more actively done by Sim Sa Jeong (1701-1769) and Kang Sye Whang(1713-1791). On the other hand, in those days, it became to be difficult even in China to get real relics of masterpieces of Sung(宋), Yuan(元), and Ming(明) Dynasty, caused by Qianlong(乾隆 : 1736-1795)'s exceedingly collecting of works of arts. So, huapu was strongly wanted more than any other time and consumer of it has increased rapidly. And in the artist's world of Choson, the southern literati painting became to be much in fashion and simultaneouly the acceptance of chieh-tzu-yuan hua-chuan was spread out. Therefore, it is natural that the late Choson Dynasty paintings of the southern literati painting shows a formal influence of Chieh-tzu-yuan hua-chum.;芥子圖畵傳은 淸代의 희곡작가인 李漁(1611~1680)가 산수를 사랑하나 직접 그리지 못하는 사람을 위해 산수를 그리는데 필요한 형식을 만들어서 이것을 보고 누구나 그릴 수 있도록 하여 스스로 그린 산수화로 臥遊의 즐거움을 누리게 하고자 한데서 성립의 발단이 되었다. 마침 그의 사위 沈因伯이 家傳되어 온 李流芳(1575~1629)이 모은 산수화보 43매가 인쇄되지 않은 채 있어 淸代화가 王槪(1645~1710)에게 증보 및 편집을 의뢰하여 1679년에 간행된 것이 초집(산수보)133매였다. 이 初集山水譜는 각 역대 名家들의 畵法의 특징들을 樹法 山石法 등으로 세분화하여 구체적인 이론과 함께 수록하고 있어 산수를 그리려는 사람에게 실질적인 필수 회화교과서 역할을 하게 되었다. 이후 난죽매국보와 초충화훼, 영모화훼보를 갖춰 초집의 후속으로 二集이 간행되었으며 이 때가 1701이다. 上譜들의 원본을 蘭竹은 諸昇, 梅菊花卉는 王質에게 부탁하였고 이 譜들의 모사, 증보, 편집은 王氏삼형제(王槪, 王蓍, 왕얼)맡아서 하였다. 이와같은 배경에서 성립한 개자원화전은 동기창(1555-1636)의 남북분종론 제창 이후 간행된 그 시대의 경향인 남종문인화의 성격을 많이 갖춘 화보이다. 따라서 淸代화단에서 남종문인화의 선풍과 함께 개자원화전은 중요한 화보중의 하나가 되었고, 조선후기에 새로운 회화양식인 남종문인화와 더불어 점차 수용되기 시작하였다. 그 수용과정을 살펴보면 18C초반경 그 당시 중국문문을 가장 많이 체득하였고 집권층인 西人·노론계열의 안동김씨집안의 金昌業(1658~1722)을 중심으로 한 이른바 白岳藝林의 멤버들인 조영석(1686~1761), 李夏坤(1677~1724), 鄭敾(L676~1759)들 소수에 의해 수용되었으나, 문헌기록과 畵蹟으로 확인한 결과 실제 작품에 적용시킨 사람은 그들 중 정선이었으며 그의 작품에서 영향을 볼 수 있었다. 조영석은 문헌기록에 의하면 개자원화전을 접하였음이 분명하나 작품에는 그다지 반영되지 않았다. 이후 18C중반기 심사정(1707~ 1769), 강세황(1713~1791)의 작품활동시기에 이르면 활발하게 수용하는 단계가 되었다. 한편 이즈음 중국의 사정은 高宗(乾隆1736-1795)의 적극적인 미술품 수장으로 인해 중국에서도 宋元明代의 眞蹟이나 名作은 구하기 힘든 상황이 되었다. 따라서 畵譜의 필요성이 그 어느 때보다 더욱 요청되는 시대였으며 더우기 판화기술의 발달과 더불어 畵譜에 대한 수요자도 급증하였다. 또한 조선화단의 경향은 남종문인화에 대한 저변이 점차 확대되어 성행하게 됨과 동시에 개자원화전의 수용도 확산되기에 이르렀다. 따라서 조선후기 남종문인화에 나타난 회화양상 중 개자원화전이 끼친 영향은 作畵法의 세부기법 표현에서 全圖의 臨摸와 倣作에 이르기까지 다양하며, 특히 널리 표현된 세부묘법은 樹法에서 元四大家들(황공망, 예찬, 왕몽, 오진)의 형식들이다.
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