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國際私法上 夫婦財産制에 관한 考察

Title
國際私法上 夫婦財産制에 관한 考察
Other Titles
(A) Study on the Matrimonial Property in Private International Law
Authors
崔允瑄
Issue Date
1988
Department/Major
대학원 법학과
Keywords
국제사법부부재산제Matrimonial Property
Publisher
이화여자대학교 대학원
Degree
Master
Advisors
서희원
Abstract
Today, as in the past, the most basic unit of society is the family. The family has its origin in the relationship between a husband and a wife. In general, eventhough marriage life is a community life, which is based on love and trust, economic problem under the category is also to be treated as one of the most fundamental element . Today, the status of women differs from what it was under the patriarchal family system of feudal times, has came to the more progressed level in social and economic activity, and women themselves are receiving more recognition regarding the status as individuals. As a result, matrimonial property system has been defined in lagislative acts over the world. In general, there is the matrimonial property system, which is dealing with property relation between a husband and a wife. And the system includes problems of reversion, management and division, and also, problem of burden of expenses for marriage life, which is devided into two types as follows: The first type is a contract property system which specifies the content by contract between the persons concerned discretionally. The other is legal property system which is laid down in laws int he case of that type, i.e., if content is not regulated or incomplete. Nowadays, matrimonial property system being prescribed in the rule of all country over the world, however, the period of conclusion of contract or content of contact is different per nations. Further, legal property system which is according to the case of not concluded by contract regarding the matrimonial property system is so different. Therefore, in the day of occasion of the international case, the problem of applied law which nation's that is more related or not,i.e., the decision of proper Law is an important problem. From the viewpoint of the Private International Law, there are thcee legal principles for deciding the proper law in regard to the matrimonial property : One is the intention principle(Party Autonomy) which the proper law governing the matrimonial property system shall be decided on the basis of relevant parties' intention in the same manner of the law of obligation. Another is the principle of personal law which intends to apply personal law of relevant parties to the matrimonial property system. This is based on the principle that the contract of matrimonial property cames from the result of a marriage: and the other is the principle of discrimination between movables and immovables. That is, affairs concerning movables are governed by personal law and these concerning immovables by the law of the place where they are situated. By the way, with respect to how the change in nationality or adress being made after a marriage, the question will affect the existing legal relation. In this regards, there are also three principles : One is the principle of complete mutability, another is the principle of immutability and the other is a principle of concilatory measure which a newly obtain property is only subject to the principle of mutability. In this thesis, moreover, the collisions of the proper law on the matrimonial property system with the law of place where the real estate is, and with the proper Law which governs the succession are synthetically studied. And, in the section Ⅳ of this thesis, convention on the law applicable to matrimonial property regimes which is concluded in Hague Private International Law Meeting are studied, and Article 17 of the Korea Conflict of Law Acts, i.e., the provision with respect to matrimonial property system "it shall be governed by the husband's national law at the time of marriage." is studied centering around the scope of application in detail. Lastly, Hague Convention is evaluated and direction of legislature in future are shown on this thesis along with the criticism of the provision of Korea Conflict of Law Acts.;古今을 막론하고 社會의 가장 基本的인 單位는 家族社會이며 家族社會는 夫婦關係로부터 비롯된다. 무릇 夫婦生活이란 애정과 신뢰를 바탕으로한 共同生活이어야 하지만 經濟問題 또한 夫婦生活에 있어 基本的 要素의 하나라고 할 수 있다. 옛날의 封建時代에 있어서의 家父長的인 家族社會와는 달리 오늘에 와서는 女性의 地位는 社會·經濟活動에 있어서 괄목할만한 향상을 보여 주고 있으며 女性 스스로도 자신의 獨立된 人格的 地位에 대한 認識이 강해져 세계 각국은 夫婦間의 財産關係를 立法으로 규율하기에 이르렀다. 一般的으로 夫婦間의 財産關係를 다루는 夫婦財産制에는 夫婦財産의 歸屬·管理 및 分配問題 그러고 婚姻生活의 費用負擔問題등이 包含되며 이것은 當事者가 任意로 契約에 의해서 婚姻生活에 있어서의 財産關係를 定하는 契約財産制와 이에 관한 規定을 定하지 않은 경우 또는 契約이 있더라도 그 內容이 不分明한 경우에 의하게 되는 法定財産制로 나누어진다. 오늘날 세계 각국이 規定하고 있는 夫婦財産制는 契約締結時期나 契約內容이 나라마다 相異하며 夫婦財産契約이 締結되지 않은 경우에 따르게 되는 法定財産制도 다르므로 涉外的 事件이 發生하였을 때에는 어느 나라 法에 의해야 할 것인지 즉 準據法의 決定이 중요한 문제라 하겠다. 國際私法上 夫婦財産制準據法決定에 관하여는 첫째로, 夫婦財産制를 債權契約과 同一視하여 當事者의 意思에 의해서 準據法을 決定하는 意思主義 둘째로, 夫婦財産契約에 대해서 婚姻의 效力이란 점을 중시하여 當事者의 屬人法을 적용하는 屬人法主義 세째로,夫婦의 財産을 動産과 不動産으로 나누어 動産에 관해서는 屬人法에 의하고 不動産에 관해서는 所在地法을 適用하는 動産·不動産區別主義등으로 나눌 수 있다. 그런데 婚姻後에 國籍이나 住所가 變更된 경우에는 準據法에 어떠한 영향을 주는가에 대해서도 세가지 主義로 나누어진다. 즉, 完全變更主義와 不變更主義 및 새로 取得한 財産에만 變更主義를 적용하는 折哀主義등이 있다. 그리고 夫婦財産制準據法은 土地가 있는 所在地法과의 關係에서도 충돌문제가 發生하며 또한 相續準據法과의 사이에서도 복잡하고도 곤란한 문제가 발생한다. 그리하여 本論文에서는 이러한 문제들을 綜合的으로 다루어 보았다. 그리고 第Ⅳ章에서 헤이그國際私法會議에서 체결된 夫婦財産制準據法에 관한 條約을 검토해 보고 우리 涉外私法 第17條 즉 "夫婦財産制는 婚姻當時의 夫의 本國法에 의한다"는 規定을 그 適用範圍를 중심으로 자세히 다루어 보았으며 마지막으로 헤이그條約을 評價해 보면서 우리 나라 涉外私法規定의 비판과 함께 앞으로의 立法方向을 提示해 보았다.
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