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星湖 李瀷의 政治思想

Title
星湖 李瀷의 政治思想
Other Titles
Seong Ho Lee Ik's Political Thought
Authors
沈順禮
Issue Date
1988
Department/Major
대학원 정치외교학과
Keywords
성호이익정치사상정치외교학
Publisher
이화여자대학교 대학원
Degree
Master
Advisors
박충양
Abstract
本 論文은 18c 前半의 實學者 星湖 李瀷(1681∼1763年)의 政治思想에 관한 硏究이다. 朝鮮朝에 있어서는 16c 後半에 이르러서 朱子學이 正統 이데올로기로서 確立되었으며, 이때의 代表的인 朱子學者로서 退溪와 栗谷을 들 수 있다. 이들 兩 思想家는 한편으로 공통의 思想的 基盤을 갖고 있었으나, 또 한편으로는 「理氣」論을 둘러싸고 思想的 對立을 보이고 있었다. 즉, 退溪는 「理」의 超越性을 强調하여 政治社會的 實賤에 있어서는 主靜的이며 內省的인 面에 치우쳐서 「修己治人」論에 있어서 「修己」를 强調하여 道學主義的인 側面을 문제시 하였다. 이에 대하여 栗谷은 「理」의 超越性을 否定하고 「理」의 「氣」에의 內在性만을 肯定하여, 政治社會的 實踐에 있어서도 朱子學의 「修身」으로 부터 「治國平天下」에로라는 連續的 思推를 原理的으로 認定하면서 「治國平天下」의 問題의 相對的 獨自性을 重視하는 方向으로 치우치고 있었다. 따라서 統治論에 있어서 退溪처럼 統治는 統治者의 「修身」의 自然的 結果가 아니라 수행해야 할 具體的인 政治的 實踐을 强調하고 있으며, 이것이 近世 實學思想의 基本的 지향을 提示하는 것이었다. 이와 같은 朝鮮朝 思想史에서 星湖의 位置를 보면, 哲學的 思考의 領域에서는 退溪의 思想을 繼承하고 있으며, 政治·社會的 實踐論의 側面에서는 栗谷과 磻溪의 政治的 思考를 繼承하고 있었다. 그러므로 星湖의 이러한 思想的 傾向은 哲學的 思考의 領域과 政治·社會的 實踐論의 領域이 一致하지 않음을 보여준다. 즉, 星湖의 段階에 있어서는 政治社會的 實踐論에서의 思想的 發展이 哲學의 領域에서 아직 理論化되지 못하였던 것이다. 따라서 이와 같은 星湖의 學文과 思想의 傾向은 그가 過渡期의 思想家임을 나타내는 것이다. 本 論文에서는 이러한 星湖의 思想史的 位置에 착안하여 星湖의 哲學的 思考와 政治的 思考를 그의 思想의 全體的 構造속에서 把握함으로써, 그의 思想을 總體的으로 檢討하려고 한다. 따라서 本 論文은 全體를 Ⅵ章으로 構成하였다. 第Ⅰ章 序論에서는 硏究目的 및 構成方法에 관하여, 第Ⅱ章에서는 實學思想의 근저를 이루는 政治的 現實主義가 어떠한 狀況에서 擡頭하게 되는지를 時代狀況의 推移를 통해 살펴보고 있다. 17c 후반∼18c 전반의 時代狀況을 思想的 次元에서 보면 原理의 側面에서는 朝鮮 朱子學이 「修己治人」에 立脚하여 政治·社會經濟秩序를 確立하려 했으나, 實際의 側面에서는 이러한 朱子學的 原理에도 불구하고 現實의 政治·社會에는 矛盾이 表出되고 있었다. 따라서 從來의 價値 理念의 次元에서의 朱子學的 道德主義만으로는 現實의 矛盾들을 解決할 수 없다는 自覺이 싹트게 되며, 이러한 政治的 現實主義는 實學思想의 基調를 이루게 된다. 第Ⅲ章에서는 星湖의 學問과 思想에 대한 硏脚究傾向들을 通해서 思想史에 있어서 星湖의 位置를 어떻게 規定할 수 있는가의 問題를 提起하고, 星淵의 朱子學思想의 繼承 側面과 實學思想의 繼承 側面을 살펴보고 있다. 星湖는 哲學的 思考의 領域에서는 退溪의 理氣論을 繼承하였으며, 政治的 思考의 領域에서는 栗谷 以後 統治論에 있어서 制度論을 重視하는 발상을 따르고 있었다. 이러한 思想的 傾向은 星湖의 段階에 있어서는 아직 統治論의 哲擧的 基礎가 確立되어 있지 않음을 나타내어 준다. 따라서 星湖는 過渡期의 思想家로 位置지워질 수 있다고 생각한다. 第Ⅳ章에서는 星湖의 政治社會的 實踐論은 그가 17c 後∼18 c 前半의 時代狀況 속에서 思惟하고 있었다는 것과 밀접한 關係가 있다는 점에 착안하여, 星湖가 當時의 時代狀況을 어떻게 認識·批判하고 있는가를 政治·經濟·社會的 次元에서 具體的으로 살펴보고 있다. 第Ⅴ章에서는 星湖의 體制構想에 착안하여 그 性格을 살펴보고 있다. 星湖가 現實認識을 基礎로 하여 現實의 矛盾들을 克服하기 위해 提示한 方案이 그의 體制構想이다. 그의 體制構想은 價値理念의 次元에서는 民本主義에 力點을 두었던 것이며, 그 實踐의 次元에서는 制度改革에 力點을 두었던 것이다. 이러한 星湖의 體制構想을 通해 그가 提示하는 政治社倉는 어떠한 것이었는가를 살펴보고 있다. 第Ⅵ章 結論에서는 以上의 硏究結果를 中心으로 星湖政治思想의 質을 整理해 보았다.;This thesis is a study on Seong Ho Lee Ik's ( 星湖 李濯, 1681-1763) political thought for the first half of the eighteenth century. Coming to the latter half of the sixteenth century in the Yi Dynasty, Zu Za School ( 朱子學 ) was being established as a orthodox ideology, while Toe Gae ( 退溪 ) and Wul Gok ( 票谷 ) were regarded as typical scholars of Zu Za school at that period, On one hand these two thinkers shared the basis of their thoughts with each other, on the other hand they showed conflicting views with respect to the theory of Lee and Kee ( 理氣論 ). That is, Toe Gae, who was inclined to static and introspective points in sociopolitical practice, with stressing the superiority of Lee( 理 ), raised questions of the ethical aspect by emphasizing Soo Kee ( 修己 ) in the theory of Soo Kee Chee In ( 修己治人, govern after morals). On the contrary, WuL Gok denied superiority of Lee but affirmed immanence of Lee in Kee, admitting sequent thinking in principle, from Soo Sin ( 修身 ) to Chee Guk Peong Cheon Ha ( 治國平天下 ) in Zu Za School, inclined to take a serious view of the relative individuality as to Chee Guk Peong Cheon Ha. Therefor, as for governing, it is not natural consequence through governer's Soo Sin unlike Toe Gae, but he emphasize sconcrete political practice which must be gotten experienced, which presents basic pursuit of modern SiL Hak Sa Sang ( 實學思想 , pragmatic thought of the Yi Dynasty). In respect of Seong Ho's ( 星潮 ) stand in thought history of the Yi Dynasty, he succeeded to Toe Gae's study and thought in aspect of philosophic thought and did Wul Gok and Ban Gae's( 磻溪 ) political thought in point of sociopolitical practice. Accordingly, Seong Ho's this tendency of thought causes the fields of his philosophic thought and sociopolitical practice no to coinside with each other. That is, the development of his thought as to the theory of sociopolitical practice was no theorized yet in the extent of philosophy till seong Ho's phase. Accordingly, this trend of his study and thought shows that he was a transitional thinker. This thesis has been made to examine Seong Ho's thought as a whole, in view of his position in thought through the overall structure of his thought. This thesis consists of six chapters on the whole. The first chapter, preface, refers to objects of this study, in addition to process and composition of the thesis, and the second chapter explains under what circumstances political realism rose, which was the basis of Sil Hak Sa Sang ( 實學思想 , pragmatic thought in the Yi Dynasty) through the transition of historical circumstances. Considering the historical circumstances from the latter half of the seventeenth century to the first half of the eighteenth century at the dimension of thought, although in aspect of principle Zu Za School ( 朱子學 ) in the Yi Dynasty tried to establish the order in politic, society and economy of the times ,in practical aspect contradictions emerged from the actual politics and society. Accordingly, such recognition that actual contradictions could not be solved by only moralism in Zu Za school at the dimension of the previous value of ideology emerged, and this political realism as above became to the basis of Sil Hak Sa Sang ( 實學思懇 ). The third chapter examines the both aspects of Seong Ho's succession from thoughts in Zu Za School and in his thought history through researching trend on his study and thought. Seong Ho succeded to Tae Gae's( 退溪 ) theory of Lee and Gee ( 理氣論 ) in aspect of philosophic thought and accepted the idea that theory of systems was taken serious view, as for governing after Wul Gok ( 票谷 ), in aspect of political thought. This trend of thought shows that philosophic basis in the theory of governing was not established yet at the Seong Ho's phase. So it is cosidered that Seong Ho was posted as a transitional thinker. The fourth chapter explains it in detail that what kinds of recognition and criticism Seon Ho had as to the historical circumstances at the dimensions of politics, society and economy, in view of the point that his theory of sociopolitical practice has something close to do with the fact that he was thought in the situation of the times from the latter half of the seventeenth century to the first half of the eighteenth century. The fifth chapter views the characteristics of Seong Ho's Scheme Systems ( 體制構想 ). It is his scheme of systems that he presented on the basis of the recognition of relistic circumstances to overcome the realistic contradicton at that period. In the Scheme of Systems he emphasized democracy at the dimension of value of ideology, while he emphasized reformation system at the dimension of practicing it. And this chapteer examines what the political society is, which he presented through his scheme of systems. The sixth chapter, as conclusion, explicates the characteristics of Soeng Ho's political thought o n the basis of the consequences of this study as above chapters.
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