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學校長의 指導性 特性과 敎師의 職務滿足度

學校長의 指導性 特性과 敎師의 職務滿足度
Other Titles
(A) Study of the Leadership Behavior of School Principals and Tescher Job Satisfaction
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대학원 교육학과
이화여자대학교 대학원
The purpose of this study was to examine and set forth the relationship between school principals' leadership characteristics and teacher job satisfaction. The study refers to earlier literature on the subject and makes use of statistical analysis of data obtained by questionnaire. The paper examines those contents of previous research that deal directly with the two prime variables of leadership and job satisfaction and with subordinate factors that make up those main variables. The results of this examination of earlier documents were than used as the basis for the design of the questionnaire. The questionnaire treats leadership in two dimensions, human relations and the instructional program, while placing aspects of job satisfaction into seven categories : interpersonal relations, responsibilities, working environment, salary, specialization, administrative matters and recognition. The data gathered by means of this questionnaire were analyzed for correlation and analysis of variance. What follows is a summary of the results of this analysis : A. Leadership behavior of Principals and Teacher Job Satisfaction The leadership behavior of principals and teacher job satisfaction were shown to be significantly correlated with the human-relational aspect of principals' leadership and teacher job satisfaction giving a correlation of 49 and the instructional aspect of principals' leadership and job satisfaction giving a correlation of 41. B. Dimensions of Principals' Leadership and Teacher Job Satisfaction There were meaningful variations in the level of job satisfaction depending on which aspect of the principals' leadership job satisfaction was being related to. Though job satisfaction varied somewhat according to the subordinate factor considered, the average for all factors corresponded to the quadrants of the two-dimensional field of principals' leadership in the oder Ⅰ, Ⅱ, Ⅲ. Ⅳ, showing that the human-relational dimension of leadership had a greater influence on job satisfaction than the instructional dimension did. The most desirable leadership configuration turned out to be quadrant I(high in both human relations and instructional leadership) and the least desirable, quadrant Ⅳ (low in both human relations and instructional leadership). C. Dimensions of Principals' Leadership and Subordinate Factors of Teacher Job Satisfaction The four quadrants of the two-dimensional field of principals' leadership and the seven subordinate factors of teacher job satisfaction showed significant differences. Except for specialization all the subordinate factors related to the quadrants of principals' leadership characteristics in the order Ⅰ, Ⅱ, Ⅲ. Ⅳ, showing that the principals' instructional leadership was more influential in this case. D. Principals' Leadership and Background Factors The characteristics of principals' leadership behavior did not vary significantly with such differences in the background of the school system as whether the school was a boys' or girls' school, whether the school was public or private, and the level (elementary, middle, high) of the school. It was evident, however, that regardless of background, greater emphasis was placed on the principals' human-relational leadership behavior. Conclusion The conclusion that we can derive from the results of this research are as follows: A. It is clear from the strong influence that the principals' leadership has on the teachers' satisfaction with their jobs that the quality of the principals' leadership abilities is very important to avoid the kind of leadership that tends to concentrate on the maintenance and management of the organization, as in ordinary administrative jobs, and turn to more progressive, growth-producing leadership roles (instructional guidance, curriculum management, teacher training, research activities, etc.). Greater interest and attention must be directed to these matters and the necessary training and education must be provided. B. It is clear that teacher job satisfaction varies significantly depending on which dimension of the principals' leadership is being correlated. Good job satisfaction was most closely related to quadrant I of leadership (high in both human relations and instructional guidance) and was lowest in quadrant Ⅳ (low in both human relations and instructional guidance). That human-relational leadership had a greater influence on teacher job satisfaction than instructional leadership was apparent from the more direct correlation of the two in quadrant Ⅲ (high in human relations and instructional guidance) than in quadrant Ⅱ (low in human relations and instructional guidance). It is obvious that a principal with good abilities in both types of leadership is the most desirable while one good in neither is the least desirable. At the same time, human-relational factors are shown to be a greater influence in affecting teachers' satisfaction with their jobs, so that efforts to increase principals' abilities to foster good human relations must accompany those to improve their abilities to give good instructional guidance. C. The subordinate factors of teacher job satisfaction also varied significantly with the two aspects of principals' leadership. Both human-relational leadership and instructional leadership were important, but leadership in human relations had a greater influence on all subordinate factors except specialization (i. e., interpersonal relations, responsibilities, working environment, salary, administrative matters, recognition) while instructional leadership more strongly affected satisfaction with growth in specialization. This provides principals with a basis for under standing the variables that influence job satisfaction and a way to determine which aspect of their leadership should be strengthened. D. We conclude that there is no significant relationship between the principals' leadership behavior and factors of school background (i. e., boys' or girls' school, public or private school, level of school). It was shown that the instructional dimension of principals' leadership behavior is being emphasized in all these different school situations. The stronger influence that human-relational leadership has on teacher job satisfaction, as revealed in this study, shows this to be an erroneous emphasis. Thus we see that greater effort needs to be expended on improving principals' abilities in human-relational guidance along with continued promotion of instructional leadership;本 硏究의 目的은 學校長의 指導性 特性이 敎師들의 職務滿足度와 어떠한 관계를 맺고 있으며 그 관계의 양상은 어떠한가를 밝히는 데에 있다. 이를 위하여 문헌연구와 설문조사 연구가 倂行되었다. 文獻硏究에 있어서는 指導性, 職務滿足度에 관한 先行硏究들을 개관하였고 지도성, 직무만족도등 두가지 主變因과 또 각각의 주변인을 構成하는 下位要因들, 그리고 지도성과 직무만족도에 관한 선행연구들을 살펴보았다. 設問調査硏究에 있어서, 교장들의 지도성 행동 측정을 위해 Ohio 주립대학 연구팀이 개발한 LBDQ(Leadership Behavior Description Questionnaire : 지도성 행동기술척도), 그리고 교사들의 직무만족도 측정을 위해서는 전 성연이 개발한 KTO(Korean Teacher Opinion naire : 교사직무만족도척도)를 각각 사용하였다. 그 결과는 다음과 같다. (1) 자료의 통계분석 결과 교장의 지도성 특성과 교사의 직무만족도와는 의미있는 상관을 보였다. 교장의 指導性 特性을 人和中心(LB.Ⅰ)과 課業中心(LB.Ⅱ)으로 구분하여 직무만족도와의 상관을 살펴본 結果, 人和中心의 指導性과 職務滿足度간에는 .49, 課業中心의 指導性과 職務滿足度간에는 .41로써 有意한 상관이 있었다. (2) 校長의 指導性 象限(quadrants)에 따라 敎師의 職務滿足度는 의미있는 차이를 나타냈다. 교사의 직무만족도는 교장의 지도성 범주(Ⅰ상한, Ⅱ상한, Ⅲ상한, Ⅳ상한) 중에서 Ⅰ상한 > Ⅲ상한 > Ⅱ상한 > Ⅳ상한의 順으로 평균값을 가짐으로써 人和中心的 指導性 特性이 課業中心的 指導性 特性보다 전반적인 직무만족도와 직무만족도 하위요인들에까지 큰 영향을 미치고 있음이 나타났다. 또 Ⅰ상한의 지도성 유형, 즉 높은 人和, 높은 課業中心의 지도성을 발휘하는 교장과 함께 일하는 교사들의 직무만족도가 가장 높았으며 Ⅳ상한의 지도성, 즉 낮은 人和와 낮은 課業中心的인 교장 밑에서 일하는 교사들의 직무만족도가 가장 낮게 나타났다. (3) 전체적인 직무만족도와 직무만족도 하위요인들에 미치는 영향에서 하위요인 "專門性 伸張"을 제외한 나머지 하위요인, 즉 人間關係 職務, 勤務環境, 報償, 行政體制, 認定地位 등 모든 요인이 Ⅱ상한(낮은 인화, 높은 과업중심)의 지도보다는 Ⅲ상한(높은 인화, 낮은 과업중심)의 지도성의 영향을 많이 받는 것으로 나타났다. (4) 교사들의 배경요인들(국·공립과 사립의 구별, 초·중·고등학교의 급별 구분, 남·녀학교의 구분)과 교장의 지도성과는 의미 있는 차이가 없음이 드러났다.
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