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開化期 服飾의 變遷과 그 要因

開化期 服飾의 變遷과 그 要因
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(The) transformation of costume during the period of modernization of Korea and the Factors
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대학원 의류직물학과
이화여자대학교 대학원
論文은 開化期의 服飾 形態의 變遷과 그러한 變遷을 招來하게 된 變遷要因에 關한 硏究이다. 우리나라는 1876年 日本과 丙子修好條約을 締結함으로써 開港을 하게 되었으며, 開港·開國과 더불어 傳統社會는 崩壞되고 社會 全般에 걸쳐 改革이 斷行되면서 衣服制度에 있어서의 改革도 함께 이루어졌다. 이러한 改革은 對內的으로는 西洋의 新文明을 받아들여 文明開化하려던 開化思想에 의한 것으로 마침내 우리나라는 中國服節과의 二重構造的인 오랜 傳統을 깨고 西洋服飾과의 二重構造를 갖게 되었다. 開化思想은 實學思想에서 싹튼 것이고, 天主敎 및 基督敎의 傳來와 東學思想으로 인하여 일반 국민에게 派及되었는데, 이에 拍車를 加한 것은 新敎育의 普及과 言論의 唱導의 힘이 컸다. 男子服飾은 먼저 衣服制度의 改革에 따른 官服의 變遷이 있었고, 이에 의한 私服의 變遷도 招來되었다. 그리하여 官服中 常服인 團領이 周衣로 變하였고, 私服에 있어서도 道袍, 창의등 廣袖의 袍가 폐지되고 窄袖인 周衣로 變하여 그때부터 우리나라의 袍는 周衣一色이 되었다. 또한 洋服의 着用은 開化思想家들에 의해 먼저 着用되기 시작하여 武官服에 있어 具軍服이 歐美式 軍服으로 變하였고, 文官服이 歐美式 服裝으로 變하였다. 또한 斷髮令은 國內에 적지않은 騷擾를 일으키기도 하였다. 女子服飾은 韓服의 간소화와 洋裝의 着用이 나타났다. 新敎育의 普及 및 女性團體의 活動으로 女性의 社會的 進出이 늘어나면서 장옷이나 쓰개치마가 廢上되었고, 저고리는 길어지고 치마는 짧아지면서 통치마도 등장하였다. 이러한 變化는 宣敎師들의 影響을 받은 傳道婦人들의 옷차림에서부터 시작되어 言論의 影響등으로 일반에게 널리 傳播되었다. 이러한 가운데 西洋文物을 접하게 된 女性들은 洋裝을 하기 시작하였으니, 이러한 洋裝의 着用은 女性들의 머리모양에 變化를 가져오게 하였고, 이에 따른 洋裝帽·洋靴·洋襪이 등장하게 되었다.;Korea was made to open her habors for foreign powers in accordance with Byungja Amicability Treaty with Japan in 1876. With the Korean harbors opend to forign powers the traditional society of Korea began to collaps and renovation of the society in every field was taken place including the system of apparels. This idea of renovation was mainly based on the idea for the modernization of Korea by accepting a new civilization of Western Powers. Because of this transformation taken place during this period Korea came to have a dual structure of Costume-Korean style and western style, thus divorcing from the traditional dual structure of Costume-Korean style and Chinese Style. The modernization idea was originated from pragmatism and was made known to the people of Korea with the spread of Christianity and Catholic faith and with the help of Donghak idea. In addition to these factors there were the new education being received by the people and the newspapers being published in that period, which contributed to the creation of the idea for the modernization of Korea. So far as the costume of male were concerned the change of official uniforms worn by the government officials was taken place first followed by the change of their unofficial costume worn outside the offices. Danryung,(團領) uniform of a government official with a round neckband, was made to change to Joo-Ui(周衣). Do-Po(道袍) and Chang-Ui(敞衣) with broad sleeves worn by the officials when they were also changed to Joo-ui(周衣) with tight sleeves. Since that time on the Po(袍) apparel of Korea was all made to change to Joo-Ui(周衣). On the other hand the western style suits began to be worn by those who favored modernization idea. The military uniforms of the Korean style were changed to western style military uniforms. The King's decree for the cutting long hairs also created a turmoil among the people who resented. As to women's costume the improved design of the traditional Korean costumes and the wearing of western style costume by the Korean women were the main changes that were taken place during this period. The new education for female began to be firmly established and the women began to participate in various social activities through women's social groups, which eventually caused the use of traditional Jang-Ot(장옷) and Suge-Chima (쓰개치마) to be stopped. On the other hand, the length of Cho-Go-Ri(저고리) was made longer, and the length Chi-Ma(치마) was made shorter looking like a Sack-Skirt(통치마). This style of women's costume as above was originated by women Christian workers on suggestions made by foreign missionaries and this style was copied by many women in Korea. Under the influence of the western civilization made upon Korea the Korean women began to wear western style costume. The hair style of the women also had to be changed when the costume of western style became popular among the ladies in Korea, and western style hats, shoes and stockings began to be popular items to be purchased by the women of Korea.
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