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쿠르트 슈비터즈의 메르쯔에 나타난 추상성에 관한 연구

쿠르트 슈비터즈의 메르쯔에 나타난 추상성에 관한 연구
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대학원 미술사학과
쿠르트 슈비터즈메르쯔추상성
이화여자대학교 대학원
본 논문은 쿠르트 슈비터즈의 메르쯔에 나타난 추상성의 문제를 연구하는데 그 목적이 있다. 메르쯔는 기법적인 측면에서는 종이 쪼가리 등의 폐품을 화면에 부착하는 꼴라쥬(Collage)라 볼 수 있으며 그 구조적인 측면에서는 추상이라 볼 수 있다. 이러한 메르쯔의 방법론이나 형식은 모두 슈비터즈에 의해 처음 시도된 것은 아니나, 그가 비예술적인 재료를 추상적인 구도와 결합하여 순수 예술의 경지에 까지 끌어 올려 놓았다는 점은 주목할만 하다. 본 논문의 논지를 전개시켜나아감에 있어, 서론에서는 논문의 목적과 연구방법을 제시하고, 본론은 크게 세부분으로 나누어, 첫째로 메르쯔를 다다미학과의 관계 속에서 연구해봄으로써 이론적으로 메르쯔의 성격과 개념에서 나타나는 추상성의 문제를 조명해 보기로 한다. 둘째, 이와 같은 이론적인 근거를 바탕으로 실제로 어떻게 초기회화의 자연주의적 경향으로 부터 메르쯔의 추상적 구조로 이행되어 갔는가를 살펴본 뒤, 셋째, 메르쯔의 조형적인 측면을 구체적인 작품을 가지고 연구해봄으로써 슈비터즈가 이론적으로 제시하고 있는 메르쯔의 추상성과 실제 작품에 나타나는 추상성인 구조를 비교 검토해 보고자 한다. 이러한 연구의 결과를 토대로 결론에서는 슈비터즈가 제시한 메르쯔란 "모든 재료를 결합한 순수 추상예술"이라는 이론과 실제 화명에 부착된 재료가 지니는 개별적 특성을 완전히 제거하지 못하는 데에서 오는 한계성을 비판함과 동시에 슈비터즈가 미술사에서 지니는 위치를 평가함으로서 논문을 맺고자 한다.;Most of the researches on Kurt Schwitters up to now has been biographical dealing with the artist's life or evaluating Schwitters in the boundary of Dada called "MERZ". "MERZ" is the second syllable of "KOMMERZ UND PRIVATBANK" which Schwitters cut out of an advertisement to include tn one of his collages. Then he was looking for a generic name to his new "pasted and glued pictures", he chose MERZ to represent all his activities and works from 1919. The purpose of this thesis is but with different viewpoint from above mentioned researches. The thesis tries to compare theories and facts of Merz focusing on its abstractness. Furthermore, comparing Merz with not only Dada but with other modernistic styles as cubism, expressionism, constructivism, the thesis tries to bring into light the importance of Merz and its proper place in history of art. To describe Merz's characteristics, it is an "abstract art made out of every conceivable material" according to Schwitters Here word "abstract" can have many different interpretations but in general, At implies "no imitation of an object" and "art that has no relations with optical reality or with nature". Merz, collage made out of torned or cut out pieces of paper was, in its principle, already done in 1912 by Picasso and Braque, therefore cannot be seen as Schwitters' own invention. And abstractness in Merz is not unique neither , since it appeared in one of Kandinsky's water colors in 1910. But word, numbers, phrases from prints or pieces of paper, fabric, wood or metal are treated as pure formalistic elements separated from exterior reality just like dealing with squares, circles and other painted geometric forms. Accordingly, these "inartistic materials" form an abstract compositon rather than just throw shock or being narrative like in many of the collages in Dada and Futurism. Therefore, it was though that idea of bringing inartistic materials into the state of fine art seemed to be the good theme for the thesis. Merz, at first, begun in the painterly context, but soon expanded to other artistic spheres such as poetry, prose, architecture, stage, advertisement and became a generic name designasting all of Schwitter't activities. But in this thesis, the research is restricted to his collages and assemblages , more proper art historical objects than prose and poetry. Although they are equally important part of Schwitters' work and should be studied in order to understand Merz as a whole but since they are more of Literary matter than art historical, it seems appropriate to study them separately. Schwitters' works can be divided into three periods: Han-nover (1916-37), Norway (1937-40) and England period (1940-48). But since this thesis is on Merz and its abstractness, the study is mainly on his works between 1916-23. Merz was named in 1919 but he already started to work in forms of collage at the end of 1918. And in 1916/17, his works found ways of breakthrough to abstraction. Also during 1916-23, many innovations of Merz which gave Schwitters the world-wide recognition had taken place. But after 1923, many of the true Merz spirit has been lost. In developing the thesis, the main body is divided into three chapters. The first chapter tries to find out concepts and characteristics of Merz in comparison with Dada. Thus building up Merzt's abstract character in its theoretical basis. In second and third chapters, according to theoretical basis studied in the previous chapter, tries to deal with Merz's formative problems. Firstly, deals with how his works shifts to abstract structure that forms the basic frame of Merz focusing on his paintings before Merz. Secondly, tries to study Merz's formative problems itself that appears in his collages and assemblages. As already mentioned, it studies how he combined in artistic materials with abstract structure on the pictorial surface. Especially tries to study problems of Merz's abstract space and color in relations to synthetic Cubism. With careful observations and studies done in the above chapters, in conclusion, evaluates schwitters' achievements in art history of connecting modernists before the World War Ⅰ and the new generation of artists after the World War Ⅱ. And according to the theoretically proposed Merz's abstract character and j s actual formative matters, thus propose the critical point of Merz's abstractness.
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