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Neume부터 16세기까지의 서양음악 기보법의 발전과정 고찰

Title
Neume부터 16세기까지의 서양음악 기보법의 발전과정 고찰
Other Titles
(A) RESEARCH ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF WESTERN NOTATION FROM 9TH TO THE 16TH CENTURY : with the Emphasis on the Works of Guillaume Dufay
Authors
崔廷喜
Issue Date
1983
Department/Major
교육대학원 음악교육전공
Keywords
서양음악기보법발전과정Guillaume Dufay
Publisher
이화여자대학교 교육대학원
Degree
Master
Advisors
박문정
Abstract
A composer needs a musical notation to express his musical ideas as he needs a language and letters to communicate with other people. By the need, musicians have invented and developed musical notations, however, this musical notation has been varied through the ages and through different countries. in modern time, we have a kind of internationally understood signs for western music and its basis was established in the 16th century. The history of this signs, that is musical notation, goes back to the simple form of neumes which was derived from the ekphonetic notation of the early christian era, in the early 9th century, all the beginning, the neuters were able to express only the simple nuances of the text, but not the precise pitches. Soon, the development of the neumes were stimulated with the development of polyphonic music which needed to indicate more precise pitches. Thus, the simple form of neumes were developed into heighted neumes which had more distinctive shapes and later into square forms in the early 12th century. By the 11th century, the four line staff was established thus the problems notating correct pitches was quite well satisfied, however, this time the rhythms were not able to be notated. Neumes began to be written in square form, which was called "Square notation" in the late 12th century and it had been developed into the modal notation and syllabic notation depending on the melismatic or syllabic text settings. During the pre-Franconian period (C. 1225-1260), the individual length of the notes could have been distinguished and the notable difference between longa and brevis had been made. After the pre-Franconian notation the 13th-century theorists formulated a system, called Franconian notation for the value of longa, brevis and semibrevis, which was not much innovative but more systematic than the pre-Franconian notation. The laws for the perfect (triple rtythm) and the imperfect (duple rhythm) were also established during this time. The notation in the 14th century was developed on the basis of the Franconian notation, according to the rules for division of semibrevis. This time, France, Italy, England had developed the rules for rhythms independently and this time the shorter value of semibrevis, minima was added. In the late 14th century, the distinctive feature of french notation was conformed, using white phonetic notation instead of black one and this white mensural notation was more systematic and complex than the previous ones. With this white mensural notation, the 15th-century composers experimented various musical expressions, that was complex and mathematical rhythmic subtleties by using coloration and proportion. In this paper the author attempted to overview this developing progress of musical notations and intended to understand this study more throughly by translating several works of Guillaume Dufay, the great composer of the 15th century.;언어가 있으면 반드시 그 표기수단인 문자가 있듯이 음악도 가시적으로 표시할 수 있는 방법이 필요하며 이것이 음악기보법이다. 음악기보법은 그 시대나 사회에 따라 다르나, 오늘날 가장 보편적으로 사용되는 현대음악기보법은 초대 기독교회의 동기보법(Ekphonetic Notation)이서 비롯되었으며, 가사위에 길이와 억양을 표시하는 neume이 9세기에 생겼는데 사실상 neume이 서양음악에 있어서 기보법의 시작이라고 할 수 있다. 이 neume은 12세기초에 높이가 있는 neume이 되어 음의 높낮이를 표시하게 되었다. 그러나, 음의 길이와 표시는 정확하지 못하였으므로 취에 오는 많은 기보법에서 음의 상대적인 길이, 또는 확실한 리듬의 표시가 주요 과제가 되어, 이후부터의 발전은 리듬의 기보에 중점을 두게 된다. 12세기 후반에 neume이 확실한 정방형의 형태를 취함으로써 이를 정방형기보법(Square Notation)이라고 불렀으며, 음이 단음절적인가, 다음절적인가에 따라 Modal기보법(Modal Notation)과 Syllabic기보법(Syllabic Notation)으로 벌전하였으며, Pre-Franconian시대에 이르러서는 음의 각 각의 길이를 나타내고자 하였으며 Longa와 Brevis의 확실한 기보상의 차이가 나타났다. 뒤이어 Franconian기보법은 약 1260년경부터의 기보법을 말하는데 앞 시대의 기보법을 정리하여 체계화하였으며 Longa, Brevis, Semibrevis의 3가지의 기본음의 음가를 정하고, 완전(3박)과 불완전(2박)의 법칙을 세웠다. 14세기 기보법은 Franconian기보법에서 비롯되어지는데 Semibrevis의 분리방법에 따라 프랑스, 이탈리아, 영국이 각각 독립적으로 발달하였는데, 여기서 Minima의 확실한 가치가 나타나게 된다. 14세기 후반에는 점차로 프랑스의 기보법의 특징을 따랐으며, 15세기에는 14세기의 검은 음표대신에 흰 음표를 사용하며, 더욱 조직화, 복잡화되어진 흰음표정량기보법(White Mensnrai Notation)이 생겨난다. 이 기보법에서는 음의 각 각의 가치나 음들간의 관계가 확실해짐은 물론 착색법(Colorlation), 비율법(Proportion)을 사용하여 수학적이고 복잡한 리듬의 변화를 추구하여 다양한 음악을 만들어냈다. 이 기보법은 16세기 말까지 계속되었으며 현대기보법의 기초가 되는 것이다. 본 논문에서는 이러한 음악기보법의 발달과정을 연구하고, 특히 15세기의 위대한 작곡가인 Guillaume Dufay의 작품을 현대기보법으로 옮겨 봄으로써 본 연구를 좀 더 깊이 이해하고져 하였다.
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