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아동의 재인기억 발달에 관한 연구

아동의 재인기억 발달에 관한 연구
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대학원 교육심리학과
이화여자대학교 대학원
본 연구는 학령기 아동을 대상으로 재인기억의 발달적 경향을 살펴 보고자 한 것이다. 이를 위하여 본 연구는 재인기억이 그림유형에 따라 어떠한 차이를 냐타내는지를 알아보고, 재인의 정확성에 영향을 주는 유사한 간섭물(distractor)을 사용함으로써 간섭물유형에 따른 재인기억의 차이를 살펴 보고자 하였다. 이와 더불어 지연에 따른 재인기억에 어떠한 차이가 있는지 요인별로 살펴 보았다. 본 연구의 피험자는 국민학교 1,3,5학년 아동들로서 생활정도, 학업성적. I·Q가 중간정도로 통제하여 각 학년별로 24명씩 총 72명을 표집하였다. 표집된 아동중 각 학년별로 12명씩 지연검사집에 배정하였다. 실험에서 사용된 과제는 그림유형에 따라 6개의 대상(single object)과 6개의 장면(multi-object scenes)으로 구성하였으며, 간섭물유형은 각 그림을 첨가, 재배열, 지각적 변화의 형태로 변화시킨 36개의 그림으로 구성하였다. 절차는 학년별로 대상과 장면으로 된 12개의 그림을 하나씩 보여 주고 나서 3가지 형태의 간섭물과 교대로 짝지어 보여주며 이전에 본 그림을 지적하도록 하였다. 또한 지연의 효과를 알아보기 위해 7일 후 다시 검사하였다. 자료처리는 그림유형과 간섭물유형에 따른 재인기억을 알아보기 위해 요인별 평균점수를 구한 후 변량분석을 하였다. 지연에 따른 재인기억을 알아보기 위해 연령, 그림유형, 간섭물유형별로 평균점수를 구한 후 변량분석을 하였다. 연구결과는 다음과 같다. 1. 그림유형에 따른 재인기억은 장면보다는 대상을 더 정확하게 재인하였고, 연령이 증가할수록 그림유형에 따른 재인점수차가 감소하였다. 연령이 증가할수록 대상과 장면 모두 더 정확하게 재인하였다. 2. 간섭물유형에 따른 재인기억은 지각적 변화·첨가·재배열의 순으로 정확하게 재인하였으며, 특히 지각적 변화는 모든 연령에서 모두 비슷한 재인점수를 보였다. 또한 연령이 증가함에 따라 3가지 간섭물유형 모두 더 정확하게 재인하였다. 3. 지연에 따른 재인기억은 즉시검사보다 낮은 점수를 보였다. 연령이 증가할수록 지연후 재인점수가 높아졌으며, 그림유형에서는 장면보다 대상을 더 오랫동안 재인하였다. 간섭물유형에서는지각적 변화·첨가·재배열의 순으로 정확하게 재인하였다. 그러나 3가지 요인(연령, 그림유형, 간섭물유형)과 지연과의 상호작용은 의미가 없는 것으로 나타났다.;The purpose of this research is to explore the development of recognition memory of school-age children. To accomplish this goal, I attempted to examine not only how the recognition memory is affected by a variety of picture types but also how it is influenced by three different distractor types. As used here, distractor will refer to an object that interferes with the ability to remember what school age children have seen a short time before. In addition, I further tried to determine how the recognition memory is affected after a certain period of time. With respect to the subjects involved, a total of seventy two school children were selected from the first, third, and fifth graders with equal numbers in each grade. It should be noted that, methodologically, their living standard, school performance, and I.Q. were adequately controlled. In order to evaluate the effect of delay, twelve children in each grade were grouped together and tested. The pictures employed in my research consisted of six single objects and six multi-object scenes. On the other hand, the distractors used consisted of a total of thirty six pictures, the shapes of which were slightly varied according to addition, rearrangement, and perspective change. Every child in each grade was seen twelve pictures with objects and scenes which were matched with three different distractors. Then he was asked to poing out what he has previously seen. To determine the effect of delay, the same tests were administered after a week. My data were computed in the form of mean score of many variables in an attempt to examine the recognition memory affected by both the picture type and distractor type. After obtaining the mean score, I conducted an analysis of variance. For the purpose of assessing the effect of delay which is believed to affect the recognition memory, I calculated mean score of some variables that include age, picture type, and distractor type. Here again, I also conducted an analysis of variance. The results gathered can aptly be summarized as follows. First, a close inspection of my data indicate that, with regard to the recognition memory affected by the picture type, school children were found to remember the object better than the scene. My findings also suggest that, as they moved into higher grade, they were less confused by various picture types. Another finding that deserves special attention is that as they became older, they correctly remembered both the object and scene. Secondly, a close survey of my data demonstrate that, with respect to the variables of distractor type influencing the recognition memory, school children remembered perceptive change, addition, and rearrangement in an order of ease. Predictably, they equally performed well on perspective change test. In addition, as they moved into higher grade, they were more likely to remember the three different distractor types correctly. Thirdly, my findings, on the whole, insinuate that the performance on a test administered after a week showed lower score than that on an immediate test. It was also found that as they moved into higher grade, they were more likely to correctly remember what they have previously seen after a week. With regard to the picture type, they remembered the object longer than the scene. On the other hand, as for the variables of distractor type, they remembered perspective change, addition, and rearrangement in an order of ease. Additionally, the correlation between delay and three variables (age, picture type, and distractor type) turned out to be statistically insignificant.
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