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우리나라 나막신(목극)에 관한 고찰
- 우리나라 나막신(목극)에 관한 고찰
- Other Titles
- (A) study on the Na-mak-sin(Mok-geuk) in Korea : centering on Cho-sun Dynasty
- Issue Date
- 대학원 의류직물학과
- 나막신; 목극; 복식; 복식사
- 이화여자대학교 대학원
- 本 論文은 우리나라의 朝鮮王朝 中期以後부터 近世까지의 목극과 우리 隣接國인 中國과 日本의 목극에 관하여 考察한 것이다.
목극은 木製의 신을 말한다. 우리나라에서 옛날에는 「색子」, 「각색」·「격지」·「목극」·「木履」·「섭」·「木鞋」로 불리다가, 朝鮮王朝 末期 무렵 「나막신」으로 通稱되었는데 이는 「나무신」의 訛言이다.
우리 나라의 古代 목극 有無에 대해서는 문헌 고증은 어려우나 단지 中宗 12년(1517)의 「四聲通解」에 "고호색자"라 하여 그 이전의 存在를 짐작케 하고, 이에 대해 李相佰은 高麗中葉以前까지 보고 있다.
우리 나라는 雨日에 上下男女 모두 신었으며, 마른신으로도 사용되었다.
朝鮮王朝 中期에는 「정격지」·「굽격지」·「굽이 없는 것」· 「굽에 정이 박힌 것」등의 형태가 있었다.
朝鮮王朝 後期에는 童子가 신는 채극등이 있었고, 평극은 보이지 않는다.
庚戌年(1910) 이후에는 고무신의 등장으로 쇠퇴하다가 2차 대전중 고무신 생산이 안 될때 庶民들의 겨울 신으로 부활하기도하였으나 해방 이후 거의 자취를 감추었다.
목극은 材料에 구애 받지 않아 다양하게 사용되였는데, 特히 梧桐나무와 버드나무로 만든 것을 제일로 쳤다.
朝鮮王朝 末期의 遺物을 中心으로 본 형태는 굽이 없는 것, 굽이 있는 것, 굽에 정이 박힌 것 등으로 大別되고 연치목극이었다.
또한 男子用은 대체로 투박한데 비하여 女子用은 날렵하며, 어린이 用은 주로 채극이다.
製作過程은 濟州道에서 現在 生産되는 것을 中心으로 하였다.
中國에서는 古代에 貴賤區別없이 착용하여 春秋時代에 盛行하였으며 南北朝부터 宋代에 특히 士大夫階級사이에 크게 유행하였다.
형태는 평극, 굽 있는 것, 굽 없는 것, 채극에 끈이 달린 것 등인데, 그 기본 구조는 연치목극으로 된 것과 차치로 된 것이 있다.
연치목극은 편과 굽이 하나로 된 것이고 차치는 나무의 굽을 안에 넣은 것이다.
日本에 있어서는 목극에 관한 문헌 증거가 上代에는 없으나, 自然的인 必要에 의한 것으로 보고 있다.
또한 연치와 차치로 된 평극의 형태가 많이 보인다.
이상과 같이 隣接國과 서양의 모든 木製신이 비올 때의 신발로서 草履와 같이 自然的인 必要에 의한 것이었으며, 따라서 우리나라의 목극도 自然的으로 發生한 것이라고 생각된다.
이상의 考察은 가능한 限度內에서 문헌·유물·繪畵 등을 中心으로 考察하였으나, 문헌 부족과 유물 년도를 推定하기가 不可能하므로 좀 더 깊은 연구는 後槁에 미루기로 한다.;This thesis is a study on Mok-Geuk(목극) from the middle age of Cho-Sun(朝鮮) dynasty to modern age and Mok-Geuk of the two vicinal nations, China and Japan.
Mok-Geuk is a kind of wooden shoes. In ancient times, it had been called Sap-Ja(□子), Gak-Saek(각색), Kyuk-Ji(격지), Mok-Geuk(목극), Mok-Ri(木履), Seop(□), Mok-Hye(木鞋) in Korea, and at the end of Cho-Sun dynasty it was usually called Na-Mak-Sin(나막신) which was the erroneous word of Na-Nu-Sin(나무신 , Wooden shoes).
In Korea, it was difficult to authenticate the presence of Mok-Geuk in ancient times by literature, but is was possible to guess the presence by Sa-Seong-Tong-Hae(四聲通解, King Jung-Jong 12th year, 1517); There was a word of Go-Ho-Sap-Ja(古呼澁子, It means that it was called Sap-Ja in old days). Concerning the matter Lee Sang-Back(李相伯) insists that the origin of it should be before the middle age of Koryeo(高麗).
It was worn in rainy days by all the high and the low, men and women and also used for Ma-Reun-Sin(마른신, Shoes for fine days).
There were some shapes of Na-Mak-Sin like Pyung-Kyuk-Ji(평격지), Kup-Kyuk-Ji(굽격지), Mok-Geuk which was nailed in the heel and the heelless Mok-Geuk in the middle age of Cho-sun dynasty. Chae-Geuk(채극, colored pattern) which was worn by children and the others were appeared in the end of Cho-sun dynasty Pyung-Geuk was vanished.
Owing to the appearance of rubbers, while it declined after Gyung-Sul year(庚戌年, 1910), it revived as winter shoes for citizen when the rubbers were not producted during World War Ⅱ, but it was almost vanished after the liberation in 1945.
The material of Mok-Geuk was various so it was not confined and especially paulownia-made and willow-made were accepted as the best quality.
Judging from the srecial reference to relies of the end of Cho-Sun dynasty the shapes of Mok-Geuk were greatly classified into as follows; Mek-Geuk which did not have the heel, Mok-Geuk which had the heel, and Mot-Geuk which was nailed in the heel. And they were Yon-Chi-Mok-Geuk(연치목극).
Mok-Geuk for men are rude, while for women are smart and Mok-Geuk for children are mainly the Chae-Geuk.
The process of manufacture is centering on the Mok-Geuk which is producted in Je-Ju-Do at present.
In China, it was worn without distinction between the noble and the ignoble, so it was greatly prevailed in the age of Chun-Chu(春秋), and especially prevailed between the rank of Sa-Dae-Bu(士大夫) from Nam-Buk(南北) dynasty to the age of Song(宋).
The shapes were Pyung-Geuk(평극), Mok-Geuk Which had a heel, heelless Mok-Geuk, and Chae-Geuk(채극) which had a piece of string, and the foundamental structure was the shape of Yon-Chi-Mok-Geuk(연치목극) or the shape of Cha-Chi(차치).
Yon-Chi-Mok-Geuk indicates the Mok-Geuk whose plate and heel were made in one piece and Cha-Chi indicates the Mok-Geuk whose separated heel was put into the plate.
In Japan, there were no literature and proofs about Mok-Geuk of ancient times.
But it was guessed that the Mok-Geuk was originated from nature. Chiefly there were many Pyung-Geuk(평극) which had the shape of Yon-Chi(연치) and Cha-Chi(차치) in those days.
As mentioned above, all the wooden shoes of the two vicinal nations and the western countries were the shoes for rainy days, they were originated by natural needs life Cho-Ri(草履, straw-shoes) therefore, I think that the Mot-Geuk of Korea was originated from nature.
Above-mentioned study was treated with special references to documents, relics and pictures within the possible limits but for lack of literature and impossibility of deduction the age of relics postpone the more study to the next time.
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