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우리나라 犯罪의 地理學的 考察

우리나라 犯罪의 地理學的 考察
Other Titles
(A) Geographical Study of the Crimes in Korea : from a Standpoint of the Environmental Criminology
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대학원 사회생활학과
이화여자대학교 대학원
犯罪地理學의 연구영역은 犯罪者의 居住分布硏究, 行態·認知硏究 등 다양하나 최근에는 立地(location)나 領域(territory)의 개념을 가지고 犯罪發生패턴에 영향을 주는 環境的인 측면에서의 硏究가 주 동향을 이루고 있다. 本 硏究도 이와 같은 관점에서 犯罪性과 관련된 經濟·社會·入口的 變數中 都市化와 犯罪와의 관계를 時系列的으로 연구하고, 住居環境變數를 要因分析하여 우리나라의 犯罪地域을 설명하였다. 분석결과, 都市의 入口가 증가함에 따라 犯罪率 또한 비례적으로 증가하였고, 그리고 大都市를 중심으로 犯罪地域이 확산되는 現象을 나타냈다. 그리고 1960年 이후 최근에 올 수록 旣存都市들은 점차 안정적인 犯罪規模를 나타낸 반면, 新興開發都市들은 급격한 犯罪 증가를 나타냈다. 犯罪性과 관련된 변수들의 要因分析結果,모두 4個의 要因(factor)이 추출되었으나 要因Ⅰ이 犯罪性과 연관된 환경적인 기회를 가장 잘 설명하였다. 要因Ⅰ에 의한 지역구분 결과 고도의 都市化, 産業化를 이룬 大都市와 그 주변지역이 범죄에 대한 환경적 기회가 가장 높은 것으로 나타났고, 이 地域을 제외한 우리나라 45개 지역권中 30개 지역권이 환경적 기회가 낮은 것으로 나타났다. 그리고 要因Ⅱ는 83年 現在 犯罪發生分布를 설명하였으며, 要因Ⅲ은 男性入口의 犯因性을,要因Ⅳ는 文化的 要因의 犯因性을 각각 설명하였다.;The subjects of the geography of crime range from criminal's residental patterns to behaviors and perceptional research of the criminals. The recent trends in the realm of the geography of crime include an environmental approach in which the concepts of location and of territory play an important role to explain that the patterns of crimes are greatly affected by environment. The purpose of this study is to explain the criminal areas of Korea from the viewpoint of the environmental criminology. For this ends, a chronological comparison between urbanization and crime was made and factor analysis of the environmental variable of residence was adopted to examine the criminality which are closely related to the demographic and the socio-economic conditions. The results can be summarized as follows. Firstly, population of a city and occurrence of crimes are in invariable ratio. Therefore an increase of the population causes the same result of the crimes. And the diffusion of the criminal areas shows a centrifugal gradient pattern centering around the metropolitan areas. Since the '60s, the existing cities have shown a stability in the occurrence of crimes, while the newly developed cities have been in rapid growth of crimes. Secondly, 4 factors were extracted as a result of the factor analysis of the variables concerning criminality. Factor I, among them, explains best of the environmental variable related to criminality. The areal classification basing upon Factor' I reveals the metropolitan areas and their peripheral areas which underwent urbanization and industrialization as having highest environmental opportunities for crimes. Among the rest of 45 region of Korea, 30 regions are low in their environmental opportunities for crimes. Crimes are highly motivated in urban areas because of the concentration of population and vigorous economic activities. The relatively low rate of crime can be interpreted as having rare opportunities for them due to the inferior economic environment such as petty farming and low income.
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