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답호에 關한 硏究
- 답호에 關한 硏究
- Other Titles
- (A) study of Dapho
- Issue Date
- 대학원 의류직물학과
- 답호; 복식; 복식사; 조선
- 이화여자대학교 대학원
- 本 論文은 朝鮮時代에 많이 着用되었던 답호에 關하여 文獻, 遺物, 繪畵를 통해서 考察한 것이다.
답호는 그 形態가 소매와 선이 없고 길이는 袍와 같으며, 뒷길 중심선과 무양옆에 트임이 있는 옷으로, 唐의 半臂와 漢의 兩當에서 影響을 받은 것으로 생각된다. 半臂는 唐의 高祖가 內官이 많이 着用한 半除의 補를 없애고 半臂라 했는데 士人들이 다투어 着用하였고, 兩當은 漢이후 通用된 武官服飾으로 無袖이며 貫頭衣형의 服飾이다.
우리나라 文獻中에서 半臂라는 用語가 처음 나타난 것은 新羅 興德王의 服飾禁制에서 인데, 이때의 半臂는 男女 다 같이 衫위에 걸치는 唐의 半臂程度의 등걸이型의 服飾이었던 것 같다.
이런 半臂가 高麗를 통해 어떻게 變化되었는지는 확실치 않으나 朝鮮朝에는 男子服飾에서 답호라는 服名을 갖게 된다.
답호는 朝鮮初期 世宗朝때에 明으로부터 王의 袞龍袍의 ,裏衣로 받은 이후에 곧 一般化되어 王의 常服과 諸臣의 冠服밑에, 帖裏위에 中衣 로서 着用되었다.
그 以外에도 陳襲衣의 被體나 鋪襲用으로 使用되었다. 朝鮮中期·後期에도 역시 初期와 마찬가지로 着用하였는데, 中期의 답호 形態는 無袖이고 對襟이며, 깃과 동정이 달려있고 길이는 袍와 같고, 뒷길 중심선이나 무 양옆에 트임이 있다.
高宗31年6月에 朝官의 衣制를 簡素化함에 따라 周衣위에 답호가 加服되어 燕居私服으로 규정되었고, 다시 同年12月에는 黑色의 周衣와 답호를 進官通常禮服으로 정하였다.
또 同王32年 乙未改革時에 公私禮服中 답호를 없애고 周衣만을 着用케 하다가 다시 同年8月에는 답호를 通常禮服으로 입되 內外 官進見時는 着用치 말라고 규정한후 1900年 區美式官服으로 바뀔때 까지 朝官의 通常禮服으로 通用되었다.
後期의 답호形態는 깃과 동정이 없어지고 목이 V자형으로 파인 합임이며, 뒷길 중심선이 거의 진동선 이하 부터 트였고 무 양옆에도 트임이 조금있는 형태로 변하였다. 또 답호와 비슷한 形制의 服飾이 戰服, 掛子(快子), 號衣등의 異名으로 着用者의 신분과 着用目的등에 따라서 달리하여 着用되었다.
朝鮮中期 以後부터 답호와 形制가 거의 비슷한 衣服이 同多里위에 加服되어 具軍服으로 着用되었는데, 그 衣服은 戰服이라 稱하였고 武官이 주로 着用하였다. 後期에는 戰服과 답호의 形態가 같아졌고, 두服飾은 國末에 名稱이 混用되기도 하였다.
掛子는 正祖의 재궁의대에 처음 보이며 처음에는 답호와 形態가 달랐으나 곧 같아져서 답호의 異名으로 사용되었는데 快子라고도한다. 名稱은 靑朝의 無袖衣인 괘자에서 연유하였다고 본다. 또한 快子는 下級軍屬 및 조예의 制服으로도 着用되었다.
號衣는 일명 더그레로 各營門의 軍士, 馬上才軍, 官隸들이 창옷이나 바지·저고리위에 着用했는데, 이 옷은 소속을 表示하기 위해 東은 청색, 西는 흰색, 中央은 황색, 南은 홍색, 北은 검정색등의 五方色을 사용하였고, 길이가 짧고 양옆이 완전히 터진 네자락인 점이 답호와 다르다. 號依는 機能的이기 보다는 소속을 나타내기 위한 色彩標識으로서 더 큰 의미가 있는 것 같다.
이상과 같이 답호는 朝鮮末까지 가장 중요한 官人의 制服을 이루었고, 着用者의 신분, 着用目的에 따라 服名과 形制를 약간 달리 하여서 着用되기도 하였다.
現在까지도 民俗舞踊服의 坐女服으로, 男兒의 名節用으로 着用되어 그 遣制를 남기고 있다.;This study is a contemplation about Dap Ho(?濩) which had been worn by as a underlying clothes of Gonyongpo(袞龍袍) in earlier of the Cho Sun dynasty, and had formed the most important uniform by government officials in late of the Cho Sun dynasty from the literature, remains, and pictures.
Dapho has no sleeves and outer collar, same length to Po(袍), and it is open the center back line and the two side line of mu, that originated from Banbi(半臂) and Yangdang(兩當) in Dang dynasty.
Banbi is that was used in common for man and woman, while man weared it on court attire, woman mainly had it on Yu(?), putting on Kun(?) over it. Yangdang is a dress that has no sleeves, pancho-style used in popular for military officers having exclusive use since Han Dynasty.
The term, Banbi had appeared first in the king Hungdok's prohibition of clothing in our literatures, its form have not been known correctly it is supposed wearing on Sam(衫) corresponding to Banbi of dang dynasty and men & women used it.
In Chosun dynasty, Banbi was called under the name of Dapho in the field of colothing for men. Dapho was generalized and the King & subjects usually wore under the Gonyongpo or Dan Ryeong(團領), and over Chupri(帖裏), since it had been given as underlying clothes of Gonyongpo by Myeng, in the King Saejong, the earlier of Chosun dynasty. Besides, it was used clothes for covering corpse when man died.
Also it had been worn as a normal dress by king and retainer, its form had no sleeves, come in contact with each lapel, lapel and collar were attached to the top border of clothes, and same length with Po, opening the center back line and the two side line of mu, in the middle of Chosun dynasty.
It had been put on as a normal dress for a vassal in late of chosun dynasty and in June of the 31th years of the King Gojong in order to simplifying dresses of court officers, Jueui(周衣) dapho were defined as plain clothes. Again December, black of Jueui and dapho were defined as normal dress. Until then, it was worn over the chupri, but was changed wearing on Jueui. Then, Eul Mi reformation period, Dapho was dropped and only Jueui used, in August of that year changed that allowed wearing Dapho as a normal dress in the presence of palace.
After then, it had used in common for a civil officer until it was changed into western style of official uniform in 1900.
The later form of Dapho was that had no lapel and collar, and it opened at the center back line and the two side of mu.
Similar to Dapho, dresses were used according to social position and purpose of men, renamed Jeonbok(戰服), Qae Ja(快子), Hoeui(號衣).
First, similir to Dapho in its form, namely Jeonbok which was put on during the war was used for equipping dress of military personnel and it was dressed on Dongdari(同多里). Equipping military dress was used as ordinary clothes for military officer from the middle of Chosun dynasty. Later, Dapho and Jeonbok were made same forms, called confusing name, and generally it was called Dapho when civil officer put on, and Jeonbok in case of military officer, the former was put on under the Sadae(絲帶), the latter was under the Jeondai(戰帶).
Besides, Qae Ja which the emperor and the crown prince put on in assumed that was under influence of Gaeze(桂子) of Chung dynasty Later, it was dressed as official uniform by lower military personnel and servants.
Hoeui was worn by the lower class soldiers and the man of humble position in court. It was a dress which used five direction colors in order to express their belonging troop, for example the east used blue, west did white, center made yellow, the south took red and north had black one. Hoeui of lower military personnel was shorter than Dapho in its length above the Knee, there was a slit at the armhole and the center back line. Hoeui worn by lower military personnel had greater meaning in order to express his belonging to army by saying color as a mark.
As mentioned above Dapho which was worn by government official as the most important uniform until the late of Chosun dynasty, had been worn changing it name and form according to social position and wearing purpose. And up to date, it has remained hereditary institution as the dresses of festival days for a boy and folk-customs dancing.
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