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綬에 關한 考察
- 綬에 關한 考察
- Other Titles
- (A) study on the "Shou(綬)"
- Issue Date
- 대학원 의류직물학과
- 수; 복식사; 자수; 의류직물
- 이화여자대학교 대학원
- 本 論文은 祭服·朝服등 禮服의 뒤에 늘어뜨려 官位를 나타내는 標章인 綬에 關하여 考察한 것이다.
대부분의 佩飾品이 實用·裝飾·呪術 등의 目的에서 發生하지만 점차 儀禮的인 것으로 變해가듯이, 綬도 그와 같은 經路를 밟아서 發生하고 變遷했다. 綬의 成立은 古代 中國의 璲에서 發達한 佩에 印의 紐로서의 役割과 불의 維가 갖고 있던 機能을 合體시킴으로써 이루어져, 政治的·社會的 役割을 담당하게 된 것이다.
이것은 漢代에 이르러 服制上에 規定된 이후로 줄곧 階級을 상징하는 儀禮用 佩飾品 中의 하나가 되었다. 品階의 區別은 上下貴賤에 따라 色彩의 配合과 길이의 長短, 技巧의 優劣등에 차이를 둠으로써 나타내었다.
時代의 흐름에 따라 綬의 構成, 色彩, 紋樣 등이 變化했지만, 宋明代에 이르러서는 着用에 알맞은 크기를 이루고 構成面에서도 定着했다.
우리나라에 綬가 傳來된 것은 高麗朝에 中國으로부터 王의 冠服이 賜與되면서 부터였다. 우리나라는 中國에 比하여 二等을 遞降하는 服制를 따랐으므로, 綬의 制度 역시 二等遞降原則을 적용하였다. 王은 中國의 親王禮에 따른 綬를 佩用했고, 王妃의 綬는 王과 同一한 것이었으며, 文武百宮은 9等으로 나누어진 朝服·祭服의 規定에 따라 綬를 佩用했다.
朝臣의 1 . 2品은 黃·綠·紫·赤의 4色絲를 使用한 雲鶴金環綬이고, 3品은 黃·綠·紫·赤 4色의 반조은환수를 하며, 4·5·6品은 黃·綠·赤 3色의 練鵲紋綬인데 4品은 銀環, 5·6品은 銅環을 間施한다. 7·8·9 品은 黃·綠의 2色을 使用한 계속구동환수이다. 그러나 實際로 朝·祭服을 着用한 階級은 4品 이상이고, 品階는 2等으로 나누어 區別하였다.
現存 綬의 遺物은 1·2品의 綬에 해당하는 雲鶴紋綬 뿐이고, 環에 있어서도 雙金環 뿐 이다. 文獻上에 나타난 바와 같이 階級에 따라 綬를 구별하여 佩用하지 않고 있었음을 알려준다. 따라서 禮服의 構成物로서 綬를 늘인다는 形式은 따랐지만 實際로 品階를 區別하는 標章으로서의 役割은 喪失했고, 裝飾物로서의 役割에 더 큰 비중을 두었다고 하겠다.
以上으로 文獻을 通해 綬制를 살피고,遺物로 그 실상을 알아보았으나 , 記錄의 缺如와 遺物의 부족으로 많은 限界를 느끼는 바이다.;This is a study on the official ribbons known as "Shou(綬)". "Shou" were worn hanging down. They were used in rituals, as well as on the court dress of men and women. While the wearing of most ornaments at the waist originated from the practical use, decoration and sorcery, it has changed gradually to a ceremonial reason. "Shou" followed this course. "Shou" also served the role of "a tie for a seal", "a binding for a ceremonial apron" and "a pendent girdle-ornament" ancient China. As a result, "Shou" have assumed a political and social role.
It was included in the dress regulation system during the Han Dynasty period and became a kind of ceremonial decoration revealing the wearer's station from that time on. It was braided with threads of many colors(it's length and colors depending on the rank of the person wearing it).
As time passed, while there were changes in constructions, colors, and the figures of the "Shou", until the Shong and Ming Dynasty period, it was fixed.
The Korean "Shou" was introduced to Korea when China imposed the king's official dress on the Korea Dynasty. The Korean dress regulation system applied the principle of lowering by two grades compared with chinese. The king wore the same "Shou" as a chinese prince, the queen wore the same "Shou" as the king, and the civil and the military officials wore the "Shou" in accordance with the dress regulation system composed of 9 degrees.
The 1st and 2nd degree officials wore the "Shou" woven in the figure of the cloud and a crane with a pair of golden circles. Yellow, green, violet and red threads were used in this "Shou". The 3rd degree officials wore the "Shou" woven in figure of a young hawk with a pair of silver circles. The same color threads as the "Shou" of the 1st and 2nd degrees' were used in this "Shou". The 4th, 5th and 6th degree officials wore the "Shou" woven in figure of a butcherbird with a pair of silver circles for the 4th grade and a pair of bronze circles for the 5th and 6th grades. Yellow, green and red threads were used in these "Shou"s. The 7th, 8th and 9th degree officials wore "Shou" woven in figure of a merganser with a pair of bronze circles. Yellow and Green threads were used in this "shou".
Though dress regulation system composed of 9 degrees, only officials over the 4th degree wore the official dress and they were divided two groups. The relic was the only "Shou" which was woven in the figure of a cloud and a crane for the 1st and 2nd degree, with a pair of golden circles. Thus , it is certain that the distinction between classes by the "Shou" had not taken effect.
In conclusion, while the practice of hanging the "Shou" as a component of the ceremonial dress had been to conformed Chinese practices, the role of the "Shou" as the symbolic dividing the grade of official rank was lost and its function of an accessory became stressed.
In spite of the study on "Shou" system based on the literature and comparing the regulation system of "Shou" system with the practical use, there are, after all, many limitations of studying "Shou" due to the deficiencies in the records and relics.
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