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學齡前 兒童의 因果關係의 槪念 發達에 관한 硏究

Title
學齡前 兒童의 因果關係의 槪念 發達에 관한 硏究
Other Titles
(A) study on the development of concepts of causality in preschool children
Authors
梁蕙瑛
Issue Date
1984
Department/Major
대학원 교육심리학과
Keywords
학령전아동인과관계개념발달
Publisher
이화여자대학교 대학원
Degree
Master
Advisors
김태연
Abstract
본 연구는 학령 전 아동들을 대상으로 인과관계에 대한 개념 발달을 알아보기 위하여 실험연구를 하였다. 첫째, 인과관계의 일방향성을 나타내는 연령을 알아보고 둘째, 원인. 결과 추론이 인과적 연속의 이해에 어떤 작용을 하는지 밝히고 셋째, 원인추론과 결과추론의 수행에서 연령에 따른 비대칭성이 나타날 것인가를 알아보려고 하였다. 본 실험의 피험자는 4, 5, 6세의 유아원, 유치원 아동 60명을 우선 표집 하였다. 실험조건은 연령과 제시순서로 구획하고 배열조건과 과제는 모든 피험자에게 같은 순서로 제시하고 원인-결과조건은 무선 배정하였다. 아동들은 3장의 그림으로 구성된 6개의 그림세트와 각 그림에 해당하는 문장을 함께 제시받았다. 본 연구의 실험은 2단계로 나눌 수 있는데, 1단계에서는 아동이 먼저 그림을 차례대로 배열한 다음 그림이 어떤 내용인지 이야기한다. 1단계가 다 끝나면 5분후 2단계에서 1단계에 제시한 그림에 대한 추론과 재구성 과제를 실시하였다. 실험결과를 보면 학령전 아동의 인과적 관계에 대한 이해는 연령의 증가와 함께 증진하는 것으로 나타났다. 인과적 관계의 일방향성은 5세면 확실히 소유하고 있는 것으로 나타났다. 또한 원인·결과의 추론은 인과적 관계를 조정하는데 효과가 없었다. 즉 어린아이들은 사건의 원인을 모르는 것이 아니라 사건간의 인과적 관계를 다룰 줄 모르는 것으로 나타났다. 끝으로 원인 추론과 결과추론의 수행에서 연령에 따른 비대칭성은 나타나지 않았다. 다만 모든 연령집단이 원인조건 보다는 결과조건에서 좋은 수행을 보였다.;The present study was made to examine the development of pre- school children's concepts of causality. One of the assumptions about cause-effect relation is that the effect necessarily follows on the occurrence of the cause, and the cause always precedes the effect. This assumption of the unidirectionality of cause and effect is not shared by preschool children. This study examined the unidirectionality of causality to find out the developmental tendency of preschool children, second, the influences that the inference of cause-effect had on the management of causal relation between events. Finally, it was also intended to examine the asymmetry of performance in the inference of cause-effect with children's age. The sample subjects of this study consisted of 60, 4-, 5-, 6-year-old children from nursery schools and kindergartens in Seoul. They were assigned by blocked randomization to the order of presentation. They were assigned the arrangemental conditions and tasks in the same order, and condition of cause-effect was randomly given. Subjects were Presented six sets of three pictures with an individual sentence describing the picture Six sets of causal sequences were constructed with three events A B C so that event A was an antecedent of B and event C was an consequence of B. The three events were portrayed on three seperated cards. This study could be divided into two stages. In the first stage, subjects arranged the three cards in sequence, and were asked to tell about the sequences. After children arranged all sets, the experimenter conversed with the subjects for approximatly 5 min. Then they were given the inference and the reconstruction task of the sequences presented in first stage. The results of this study are as follows, 1. The preschoolers improved with age in their ability to arrange the causal sequences. 5 year-old children had the concept of the unidirectionality of cause and effect relation. 2. The inference of cause-effect did not influence the management of causal relation. Subjects knew the cause of the events, but they had difficulty in the management of causal relation between events. 3. The asymmetry of cause-effect relationship in the inference task was not found out with preschooler age. All subjects performed better when they were supplied with the effects of the events.
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