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豹菴 姜世晃 硏究
- 豹菴 姜世晃 硏究
- Other Titles
- (A) STUDY OF KANG SE-WHANG
- Issue Date
- 대학원 미술사학과
- 표암; 강세황; 미술사학
- 이화여자대학교 대학원
- '豹菴 姜世晃( 1713 - l791 )은 朝解王朝後氣 英·正組시대의 書壇을 주도하였던 作家이며, 晝論家이면서 批評家였다. 그의 字는 光之, 號는 豹菴 또는 첨 , 別號로 紅葉尙晝라고도 하였으며, 謠號는 憲靖公이었다.
당시 조선화단은 淸으로부터 南宗文人畵法과 그에 따른 康熙·乾隆年間의 佩文齋書晝譜·芥子園畵傳·十竹齋畵譜등의 서적도 유입되어 사대부는 勿論 화원들도 거의 남화일색의 작업을 하였다. 하지만 實學情神에 따른 東國眞景山水와 風俗晝등의 작업을 시도하여 조선특유의 남화기법을 이뤘고 그위에 조선초기부터 전승된 기존화법들을 재조명하여 화합시키므로서 후기회화는 위대한 업적을 남겼다.
그런데 豹菴은 61세때까지 章野에서 閑遊하며 詩書晝에 정진하다가 1773年 英袒49年 癸巳年 61세에 처음으로 벼슬길에 나갔다. 영릉첨봉·병조첨지·漠械府刊尹등을 역임하고, 1784年 正袒8年 甲辰年에 千秋副使로 燕京에 가서 그의 芸造의 이름을 높이고 돌아와 三絶로 추앙받으며 正憲大夫가 되었다. 이때 그가 살피고 온 서양화에의 개안은 후기회화의 기존양식과 조화를 이뤄 또 하나의 후기회화의 특성을 창조하였다. 위로는 정조대왕의 비호가 있고, 아래로는 申緯의 "紅葉尙書의 그림은 儒氣가 넘쳐 마침내 鄭謙齋를 압도하였다."는 등 후배들의 존경을 받았으며 자신도 "社牧之의 詩와 韓退之의 文, 王羲之의 筆, 顧愷之의 晝를 자신은 다 가졌다. ( 詩之柱之· 文之退之·筆之羲之 ·晝之愷之 ·光之兼之 ),"고 하면서 스스로 五之齋라는 자부심을 가졌다.
표암의 작품은 산수·사군자·화조·인물·초상·界晝에 이르까지 다양한 부분을 섭렵하였고 그 화법사용에서도 남북종의 화법을 망라하고 있다. 그리고 본인의 말대로 모든 部門에서 흥을 돋우고 적절하게 뜻을 담아서 임리·高雅 뿐 세속적인데가 없었다.
서예에 있어서는 二王을 주종으로 삼아 그 위에 미패·趙孟體도 익히고 篆·隸書도 연구하여 마침내 淸의 高宗으로부터 "미패보다는 못하나 동기창보다는 위이다. ( 米下童上 ) ."라는 四字扁額을 받게되었다.
그런데 그와같은 書晝의 제작은 반드시 시의 屬性을 함축하고있는데 작품의 自他를 막론하고 비평할때도 그 詩性에 根據하였다.
그리고 그의 詩書晝의 작품은 勿論 비평의 態度에서도 미적 범주에 따라 분류할 수 있는데, 그것은 中和美·老練美와 幽玄美·不二美로 변모되면서도 그것이 일관성을 유지한것이 그의 제작과정의 특성이있다.;Kang Se-whang (1713-1791), the leader of artistic community, during the reigns of Kings, Yong-jo and Chong-jo, the latter period of Choson dynasty, was not only a scholar artist but an art critic. He used Pyo-am as his penname, but had two other literary names, Kwang Jee and Hong Yeup Sang Seu, and his posthumous name was Hun Jung Kong.
The artistic community of his day was predominated by Southern School painting style due to the inflow of many picture albums of Ch'ing and the influence of the literati paintings of Ch'ing dynasty. Paintings of this latter period of Choson was characterized by the rise of literati painting of the Southern School manner, development of genuine Korean landscape paintings and the popularity of genre paintings affected by nationalism movement, but traditional style of the early period of Choson still existed.
Pyo-am devoted himself to paintings of poetry and calligraphy, leading a spiritual life until he was 61. It was not until then that he was called to the government service. The 8th year of King Chong-jo, 1784, he was sent as a delegate, to Peking, Chinese capital, where he was recognized by the Chinese Emperor for his artistic talents, and on returning home, he was respected as one of the three virtuosos. The influence of the western style he observed in China then enabled him to develope a new style unique to him in harmony with the existing painting style of the latter period of Choson.
Under the recognition of King Chong-jo, he enjoyed doing critiques on his followers including Kyom-jae and Hyun-jae. "His paintings are full of Confucianist spirit and he eventually surpassed Jung Kyom-Jae." was the comment made by Shin Ja Ha, one of his followers. He also influenced greatly other young painters such as Kim Hong Do. Pyo-am took pride in devoting himself to the world of art.
Pyo-am left a variety of works of arts. They are: portraits, landscapes, and paintings of bamboos, orchids, chrysanthemums, plum-blossoms, birds, flowers and others. He was well versed in both styles of Southern School and Northern Painting School. His paintings were not worldly but truly refined and full of enthusiasm and meanings, as he himself said.
Pyo-am mastered five or six calligraphic styles, including styles of Mi Fei and Jo Maeng Fu, but followed mostly two Wang. Thus, Ko-jong of Ching praised him highly for his artistic talents.
Pyo-am never excluded the attribute of poetry when he produced his paintings of calligraphy and poetry, and his critiques were done in the same manner. His criticism shows two aspects of denial and affirmation, contrary to each other. He agreed with those works of art with three aesthetic senses important to Oriental painting, although his critiques were sharp and severe.
As he combined his early hermit period of life and later government official life into one through his works of art, he combined duality of life and art, theory and practice, affirmation and denial through nature based on Sung theory.
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