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新小說에 미친 晩淸小說의 影響

Title
新小說에 미친 晩淸小說의 影響
Authors
성현자
Issue Date
1985
Department/Major
대학원 국어국문학과
Publisher
이화여자대학교 대학원
Degree
Doctor
Advisors
.
Abstract
우리 近代文學 형성에 있어서 開化期의 時代理念을 형상화한 新小說을 外來思潮의 受容과 意識의 變容 및 同化라는 관점에서 논의한 대부분의 比較文學的인 연구는 日本을 仲介로 하는 東來的 經路에 경도되어 왔다. 그런 舊韓末의 新聞·雜誌, 또는 출판된 서적, 간행된 新小說을 추적한 결과 晩淸小說과 梁啓超의 文學論의 受容과 영향이 편저하게 나타나고 있었고, 이것이 보다 집중적으로 보여지고 있는 것은 특히 李海朝의 作品이었다. 따라서 本稿에서는 舊韓末에 출간된 李海朝의 作品을 중요 고찰대상으로 삼았는 바, 특히 애국계몽주의 문학관 및 開化期 小說觀 형성에 영향을 미친 梁啓超의 效用論的 小說觀이 新小說에도 잠재적인 자극과 理論的 투영을 이루고 있다는 사실에 주목했다. 이를테면 梁啓超의 理論方式이 실제로 具現되고 있거나 小說의 모티브가 되고 있는 晩淸譴責小說인 壯者의「掃迷추」(1905)와 이쇄의「黃繡球」(1905)는 李海朝의「驅魔劍」(1908)·「自由鐘」(1910)과는 표제·주제·인물·이미지·일반적 세계관에서 그 類似性이 明示되고 있으며 동시에 영향관계를 입증할 만한 실증적 증거를 제시하고 있다. 이러한 점에서 本稿는 비교문학에 있어서 영향의 개념을 원용하여 李海朝의 소설과 晩淸譴責小說을 고찰하였다. 우선「驅魔劍」과「掃迷추」는 標題的 측면에서 迷信崇拜에 의한 폐단을 과학적인 합리주의에 의해서 批判·응징하려는 예시적인 기능과 主題를 암시하고 있다. 실제로 이것은 작품결구에서 同質的으로 나타나고 있다. 또 주제적인 側面은 거의 剽竊에 이를 정도로 同一하지만 反迷信에 대한 구체적이고 적극적인 代案이나 과학적인 지식의 提示가 없는 점이 다르다. 그리고 「掃迷추」가 유기적인 因果關係가 없는 連作形態임에 반해서「驅魔劍」은 플롯을 添加하여 새로운 創造的인 결합방식을 보이고 있어서 극적인 긴박감과 탄력성이 있다 .人物類型 면에서는 兄弟로서 對立的 人物을 設定한 點은 共通的이지만, 人物의 役割과 性格은 전이되고 있다 .특히 주변적 인물의 경우「掃迷추」가 남성위주의 人物 배치임에 반하여「驅魔劍」은 女性群이 우세하며, 또한 이들이 主動人物의 운명적 몰락을 가속화하는 動因이 된다. 「自由鐘」과「黃繡球」의 경우 主人公인 黃繡球가 살고 있는 ‘自由村’은「自由鐘」처럼 原標題는 아니지만, 楔子와 序頭의 기능이 主題를 暗示하는 점이 同質的이어서「自由鐘」이 ‘自由村’의 이미지를 채용했을 가능성이 있다. 主題具現에서는 ‘女性의 自由爭取’라는 전제 하에 學問의 共有는 男女平等을 이룩하는 방법이 되고, 子女分娩은 여성의 우월성을 입증하고 있다. 그리고 이와 관련된 子女敎育論과 人材養成의 문제와 母敎·女敎·胎敎를 강조하는 내용은 그대로 유지되고 있다. 그러나 女性敎育의 사회적인 중요성이 自由獨立과 國權回復의 차원에까지 확대되는 것은「自由鐘」의 특색이다. 作品構造에서「黃繡球」는 사회와 개인의 갈등이 역동적으로 작용하는 전형적인 성취소설의 형태이지만,「自由鐘」은 완전히 소설의 구조가 거부되어 있다. 그러나 마지막 대단원에서 꿈에 대한 편애현상은 그대로 유지되고 있다. 人物類型 면에서「黃繡球」는 主題具現을 위한 ‘開化의 完人’으로서 인간의 양면성을 보여주는 對立的 상징을 나타내는데 반하여「自由鐘」은 행위의 갈등이 없는 무성격의 인물을 그리고 있다. 그러나 등장인물이 여성인 점은 開化와 啓蒙에 관한 여성의 역할을 강조한다는 점에서 긍정적인 가치가 있다. 마지막으로 「自由鐘」에 나타나 있는 效用論的 小說觀도 梁啓超 小說觀과 유사한 발상을 보이고 있다. 또한 양계초의 전기소설「近世第一女傑羅蘭夫人傳」(1902)의 행동구조 역시「黃繡球」와 동일하므로 女性敎育에 관한 梁啓超의 사상도 類似하다. 그리고「自由鐘」에서 梁啓超의「動物談」을 借用하고 있는 例는 新小說에 미친 梁啓超의 영향을 증명하는 것이다. ; During the Age of Enlightenment of the early 20th century in Korea the genre of the New Novel appeared. This genre indicated a new direction. However, the New Novel succeeded the past tradition. Otherwise, it is said to be responsive to some exogenous elements. Some literary points of view of foreign origins were rejected, and some were imbibed into the formation process of the New Novel. In the past, the study of the New Novel has been divided into two categories. Some scholars believe the New Novel established itself without foreign influence. Others believe that the genre had its origin in a certain exogenous literary mode. Therefore, the study must be comparative in nature. Although I have taken the orthodox method involving analogies, I am more interested in the latter viewpoint, specifically concentrating on the influences of the late Ching Dynasty Novel on The New Novel in Korea. I followed the methodology of Henry H. Remark (1961), S.S. Prawer (1973). Liang Ch’i-Ch’ao, one of the most famous modern Chinese thinkers, initiated a political reform movement. This movement had as impact on the contemporary literary mode, which gave birth to a new conception of the genre of the novel. The aesthetics of literature was given less emphasis than on the political and social reform. The late Ch’ing Dynasty Novel revealed the clear intentions and themes of author. The main spirit was to satirize the society under the late Ch’ing Dynast. The late Ch’ing Dynasty novels were based on the political and historical situations during the transitional period. At this time, Liang Ch’i-ch’ao’s concept of the influence of the novel on the masses was transmitted into Korea. Liang’s thought was embedded in the minds of the literati of the Patriotic Enlightenment Movement. This encouraged Independence and anti-imperialism, and influenced the new Novel, respectively. Among them, Yi Hae-jo’s Kuma gom originated from Chuang-tzu’s Sao-mi chou (one of the late Ch’ing Dynasty expose novels.). This concretely illustrates the influence of Liang Ch i-ch ao s essay, “The Relationship between Novels and the Masses”. Chayu jong originated from Huang Hsiu-ch’iu, which in turn imitated Liang’s biographical novel, The Foremost Modern Heroine Madame Lolan. Huang Hsiu-ch’iu and the Chayu jong are similar in sharing the theme of expelling superstition and the meaning of the title. The two novels propagated the notion that superstition hinders the human (social) development. For this reason, the Chayu jong seems to be an imitation of the Sao-mi chou. However, the contents of the novels do not embrace scientific rational thinking, nor are any other suggestions made. In the structure of the Sao-mi chou, there is no organic relationship between cause and effect, but only a series of episodes. On the contrary, the kuma-gom added a new plot exemplifying creative combination. Thus, there are dramatic suspense and elasticity. In the Kuma-gom and the Sao-Michou, two brothers are portrayed as the protagonist and the both antagonists, respectively; but the characters’ action and personalities are different. In the Sao-Mi chou, the secondary characters were mainly male, is not given much importance. On the contrary, in the Kuma-gom the role of women exceeds that of men, for the women were the cause of the downfall of the protagonist. Let us consider the title of the Chayu jong (Liberty Bell) and the Huang Hsiu-ch’iu. Huang Hsiu-ch’iu lived in the town named “Liberty”. This is one of the aspects, which indicate the similarities between the two novels; the titles suggest the themes. Both novels encourage the emancipation of women. They insist on the equal opportunity of education both for men and women. Because women could conceive children, the considered, women are superior. They stressed that the education of women would result in the upbringing of competent social talents. Therefore, they stressed the education of mothers, as the pre-natal education of fetus. In the Chayu jong, women’s education in society was important, because it was related to the independence and recovery of national sovereignty. This is the peculiarity of the Chayu jong. In the Huang Hsiu-ch’iu individual sentiments are in harmony with the society. Therefore, this is a typical example of the novels that deal mainly with “accomplishment”. On the contrary, the Chayu jong did not accept the structure of the novel completely. In the denouement, the use of dreams is characteristically seen both in the Chayu jong and the Huang Hsiu-ch’iu. The types of characters in the Huang Hsiu-ch’iu show that the perfectly civilized man must be all-inclusive. He must have both the spiritual and material sides. Each aspect is given equal emphasis for the realization of the theme. In the Chayu jong, there is no conflict between the characters. The most noteworthy aspect of the Chayu jong is the important role of women during Age of enlightenment. In the Chayu jong, the concept of the novel is almost identical to that of Liang Ch’i-Ch’ao. In regard to women’s education, Liang’s biographical novel The Foremost Modern Heroine Madame Lolan and the Huang Hsiu-ch’iu are very similar. On the other hand, in propagating the theme of liberal education, the Chayu jong fully adopted the Liang’s Story of Animals. This evidences Liang Ch’i-ch’ao’s influence upon the “New Novel” in Korea. A literary influence does not perish in a short period simply as a fad of the transitional movement. It is a continuous process of evolution. Therefore, the influence of the late Ch’ing Dynasty novels on the New Novel in Korea is also evident in other works. Thus, we must scrutinize the early period the New Novel from this perspective.
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