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대학 특성이 여대생의 취업희망직종 선택 과정에 미치는 영향

Title
대학 특성이 여대생의 취업희망직종 선택 과정에 미치는 영향
Other Titles
A study on the influence of university education on the decision making process of female university students' expected occupation aftergraduation
Authors
김선영
Issue Date
2000
Department/Major
대학원 교육학과
Publisher
이화여자대학교 대학원
Degree
Doctor
Advisors
오욱환
Abstract
이 연구에서는 여대생이 취업직종을 결정하는 데 영향을 미치는 요인이 무엇이며, 특히 대학 관련 특성은 어떠한 경로를 통해서 취업직종 결정에 영향을 미치는지를 실증적 자료를 통하여 살펴보았다. 이 연구에서 다루어진 구체적인 연구문제는 네 가지로 정리할 수 있다. 첫째, 여대생의 노동시장 성차별적 구조에 대한 인식과 노동참여 기대의 형성에 영향을 미치는 요인들은 무엇이며, 이 때 대학 특성은 어떠한 영향을 미치는가? 둘째, 여대생의 취업희망 직종이 여성 전통직인가 혹은 여성 비전통직인가의 결정에 영향을 미치는 요인들은 무엇이며, 대학 특성은 서로 다른 직종의 선택에 어느 정도 영향을 미치는가? 셋째, 여대생의 취업희망 직종 결정과정에 있어서 현재 노동시장의 성차별적 구조에 대한 인식과 미래의 노동참여에 대한 기대는 어떠한 영향을 미치는가? 넷째, 대학 특성은 여자 대학생의 취업희망직종 결정에 어떠한 경로로 영향을 미치는가? 연구문제를 실증적으로 검증하기 위한 연구자료는 대학의 소재지, 전공계열, 학년, 여대와 남녀공학을 고려하여 전국의 4년제 대학에 재학중인 여대생 1%인 5,158명에게 실시한 설문지 조사를 통하여 수집하였다. 연구문제를 중심으로 분석한 결과는 네 가지로 정리할 수 있다. 첫째, 노동시장의 성차별 구조에 대한 인식에 영향을 미치는 가장 중요한 요인은 대학 특성이며 특히 대학의 성별 유형과 학년, 여성학 강의 수강경험, 대학의 취업관련 교과과정과 취업지원체계가 영향을 미치는 것으로 나타났다. 여자대학의 여학생들이 남녀공학의 여학생들보다, 그리고 학년이 올라갈수록 노동시장이 성차별적이라고 인식하고 있었다. 여성학 강의를 수강한 학생들은 수강하지 않은 학생들에 비해 노동시장이 여성에게 차별적이라는 인식을 가지고 있었다. 그리고 여대생들이 대학에서 제공하는 취업관련 교과과정과 지원체계에 만족할수록 노동시장의 구조가 남녀에게 비교적 평등하다고 인식하고 있었다. 둘째, 여대생의 취업희망직종 결정에 영향을 미치는 변수는 직업가치와 대학 특성들이다. 직업가치 중 외적 보상과 공식적 보상을 중요하게 생각할수록 여성 비전통직을 선호하는 것으로 나타났고, 대학의 특성은 여대생이 여성 전통직을 선택하는가 아니면 여성 비전통직을 선택하는가에 중요한 영향을 미치고 있었다. 여성 전통직을 선택하는 데 있어서 학년, 전공계열, 취업지원체계는 유의한 영향을 미치어 학년이 올라갈수록 여성 전통직을 선택하고 있었고, 다른 전공계열에 비해 인문계열과 사범계열의 학생들이 여성 전통직을 더 많이 희망하고 있었다. 수도권 대학의 여학생들과 사회계열, 자연계열, 의학계열의 학생들이 여성 비전통직을 더 많이 기대하는 것으로 나타났다. 또한 대학의 취업관련 특성 중 교과과정에 만족하는 학생들은 여성 비전통직을 희망하는 반면, 취업지원체계에 만족할수록 여성 전통직을 선호하는 경향을 보였다. 셋째, 노동시장의 성차별 구조에 대한 인식이 노동참여 기대에 영향을 미치지는 않았지만, 노동시장에 대한 인식은 취업계획과 취업기간에 따라 차이를 보였다. 취업을 계획하고 있는 집단과 평생 지속적으로 취업하고 싶다고 응답한 집단이 상대되는 집단에 비해 노동시장을 더 부정적으로 인식하고 있었다. 그리고 노동시장 인식과 취업직종과는 관련이 없는 것으로 나타났지만, 취업기간과 기대 초임은 취업직종과 관련이 있는 것으로 밝혀졌다. 평생직을 기대하는 집단이 일시적 노동참여를 생각하는 집단에 비해 여성 비전통직을 선호하고 있었고, 기대초임이 높을수록 여성 비전통직을 기대하고 있었다. 넷째, 대학 특성이 여대생의 취업희망직종 선택에 영향을 미치는 경로에 대한 분석에서는 대학의 성별 유형, 소재지, 학년, 전공계열은 취업희망직종에 직접적으로 영향을 미쳤지만, 대학의 취업지원체계는 직접적으로 취업희망직종에 영향을 미치지 못하는 것으로 밝혀졌다. 대학의 취업지원체계는 노동시장의 인식을 통해 취업기간에 대한 기대를 경유하여 여대생의 취업직종에 영향을 미치는 것으로 나타났다. 이 연구 결과들에 의하면 개인의 사회경제적 배경과 사회심리적 배경은 여대생들의 직업선택에는 직접적으로 큰 영향을 미치지 못하며, 대학교육은 여대생의 취업과 밀접한 관계가 있음을 알 수 있다. 특히 미래의 직업선택에 있어서 전공은 중요한 조건이 되고 있음을 알 수 있다. 대학의 성별 유형과 학년도 전공계열에 의해 영향을 받고 있었다. 전공계열에 따라 노동시장에 대한 인식과 기대가 다르게 형성되고 이는 취업직종에도 중요한 영향을 미치고 있었다. 이 모든 결과들은 전공계열이 노동시장에서의 직업의 한계(job ceilling)를 인식하는 데 중요한 요인이고, 여대생들은 자신의 전공계열을 자원으로 삼아 제한된 상황 속에서의 합리적인 선택으로 여성전통직이나 여성 비전통직을 선택하는 것으로 나타났다. 또한 대학의 취업지원체계가 취업희망직종의 선택에 영향을 미친다는 연구 결과는 대학의 외생적 효과를 입증한다. 이러한 연구 결과들은 대학이 노동시장에서의 성별 직종분리 현상을 취업지원체제를 통하여 극복할 수 있음을 시사하고 있다. 여대생들의 취업희망직종은 대학의 취업지원체제에 의해 영향을 받기 때문에 대학에서 여성 비전통직으로 여학생들을 지원하여 남성직으로 더 많은 여학생들을 연결시켜 줄 수 있다면, 여성들이 미리 노동시장의 기회구조를 알아서 거기에 적응하는 노동공급분절 현상에 의해 재생산되는 기회구조를 변화시킬 수 있음을 말해 준다. 곧 대학의 취업지원체제는 노동시장에 대한 인식과 노동참여 기대를 변화시켜 여대생들의 취업희망직종을 변화시켜 줄 수 있다. 대학의 취업지원체제는 적극적인 지원활동을 통하여 노동시장에서 여성 비전통직으로 여학생들이 연결될 수 있도록 하는 데 중요한 역할을 할 수 있음을 시사한다. ; This study examines the factors that influence female university students occupational choice and the process, using empirical data analysis. On the basis of perception of the sex-discriminating structure in current labor market and expectation of labor participation in the future, female university students choose their occupation within the limits of usable information. On the assumption that occupational sex segregation, which is sex-discriminating structure in the labor market, is maintained as the result, this study investigates the process that structural factors are internalized to personal attitude and structure is reproduced again. The fact that it is difficult for female university graduates to get a job constitutes a social problem in present. By investigating the matching process between higher education of female students and the labor market, this study is trying to give some suggestions to following studies on employment of female university graduates. The purpose of this study is to think over the meaning and the role of university education in female university graduates employment, by studying the effect of higher education on the labor market. In detail, this study presents four study issues as follows. At first, what is the influence of university education on perception of the sex-discriminating structure and formation of female university students situation-based expectation? Secondly, what kind of factors has an effect on female university students decision making process of occupation? And are there any differences in university education between groups which choose different kinds of job? Thirdly, what influence do perception of the sex-discriminating structure and situation-based expectation of labor participation have on female university students choosing a traditional female job or a nontraditional one as a desired job? At last, how does university education exert an influence on their decision making process? In this study the dependent variable, a desired job of a female university student, is divided into two groups - a traditional female job or a nontraditional female job - and intervening variables are perception of the sex-discriminating structure in current labor market and expectation of labor participation in the future. As independent variables, personal socio-economic background and attitude to sex-role, socio-psychological background like job value, and characteristics related to university such as sex type, location, major, experience of taking women s study course and educational circumstance related to employment are employed. For the empirical analysis a questionnaire survey was conducted on 5,158 female university students, 1% of female university students attending 4-year- universities in Korea, with regard to location, major, grade, female only or coed etc. Data from 4,025 responses, 78% of distributed questionnaires, were analyzed by means of statistical methods such as chi-square test, T-test, ANOVA, multiple regression analysis and logistic regression analysis. The major findings of the study are as follows. At first, characteristics related to university which influence perception of the sex-discriminating structure in the labor market are sex type of university, grade, experience of women s study course, curriculums related to employment and employment supporting system provided by university. Compared with female students of coed universities, those of women s universities show stronger view that the labor-market is unfavorable to women and this becomes stronger as their grade ascends. Those who have an experience of taking women s study course feel more strongly that the labor-market is discriminatory to women than those who have not. And the more female university students are satisfied with curriculums related to employment and employment supporting system, the more they perceive the labor market positively. The most important characteristic of university which affects expectation of labor market participation is their major. Major has a signigicant influence on female students plan, pattern and possibility of employment. Students of medical science and education expect to take part in the labor market strongly compared with those of other major. In addition, the result implies that sex type of university influences students employment plan and location of university affects the period of employment. The greater rate of students of women s universities expects to have a job than those of coed universities and the greater rate of female university students in the capital area wants to keep their job through life than those outside of the capital area. The grade of respondents exerts an influence on employment plan and pattern and expected initial pay. While they hope to be employed and to get a full-time job more eagerly, their expected initial pay tends to decline as their grade ascends. And the more they satisfied with curriculums related to employment the longer they want to keep their job. Secondly, factors which influence female university students occupational choice are their job value and characteristics of university. The more they think external and formal compensation significantly, the more they prefer nontraditional female jobs to traditional ones. And characteristics of university have a significant effect on whether they choose a traditional female job or a nontraditional one. The grade of respondents, humanities, education and employment supporting system exert a significant influence on choosing a traditional female job, showing that as their grade ascends they are more likely to choose traditional female jobs and students of humanities and education prefer traditional female jobs compared with those of other major. Nontraditional female jobs are preferred by female university students in capital area and of social science, natural science and medical science. While those who are satisfied with curriculums related to employment among characteristics of university tend to want nontraditional female jobs, those who are satisfied with the employment supporting system of university tend to prefer traditional female jobs. Major is the most important explanatory variable in choosing occupation. The fact is well presented in the analysis of variables on the group whose desired job in high school days and in university days are different. The variable which affect the change is not socio-economic variable or socio-psychological variables but their major. Students in social science, natural science and medical science tend to change from traditional female jobs to nontraditional female jobs. Thirdly, though perception of the labor market has no signigicant influence on expectation of labor participation, it makes differences to their employment plan and expected period of employment. Those who plan to get a job or to work their whole life represent a higher level of negative perception of the labor market. And while there is no relation between perception of the labor market and the kind of occupation, period of employment and expected initial pay are correlated with the kind of occupation. Those who want to get a lifelong job prefer nontraditional female jobs compared with those who expect labor participation for short time, and also those who expect higher initial pay tend to prefer nontraditional female jobs. To clarify these results the responses are divided into two groups - a group having negative perception of the labor market and a group having positive perception. And then these two groups are divided into four according to whether they want to take part in the labor market permanently and continuously or temporarily and intermittently. As a result of that, those who have negative perception and prefer a lifelong job tend to prefer nontraditional female jobs, whereas those who have positive perception and expect temporary participation want traditional ones. Finally according to the path analysis on variables which affect female university students job expectation, employment supporting system has no direct influence. Employment supporting system is the variable that influence choosing the kind of occupation through perception of the labor market and then through expectation of the period of employment. In other words, the more they are satisfied with the employment supporting system of their university the more they perceive the labor market positively and this positive perception affects their expectation of temporary employment. And then it influences them to choose a traditional female job. To sum up, university education has a significant relation to female university students occupational choice. Personal socio-economic and socio- psychological background affects female university students choosing major which becomes a important condition in deciding occupation in the future. Sex type of a university and grade is correlated with major. Perception and expectation of the labor market are built differently in accordance with major, which influence choosing occupation. It suggests that major is a important factor to understand job ceiliing in the labor market and female university students choose a traditional female job or a nontraditional one as a rational choice within the limits of information using their major. In conclusion, perception and expectation of the labor market exert a signigicant influence. As they perceive the labor market more negatively it is more likely that they choose a traditional female job instead of a nontraditional one. The fact that perception of the labor market is affected by the employment supporting system of a university proves the exogenous effect of university education. Thus the results of this study propose a concrete way to universities in the issue of female university students employment. In other words, it suggests that universities are expected to take a very positive attitude to the matter of female students employment in order to link highly educated woman resources to the labor market.
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