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음악, 근대 그리고 계몽

Title
음악, 근대 그리고 계몽
Other Titles
A study on Introduction of Western Music into Korea in the Early Modern Period : Focusing on Baek Woo-Yong's Musical Activities
Authors
조윤영
Issue Date
2013
Department/Major
대학원 음악학부
Publisher
이화여자대학교 대학원
Degree
Master
Advisors
채현경
Abstract
During the early modern period[近代] in Korea (from the late 19th century to the 1930s), western music was introduced into Korea and rapidly spread to Koreans by both foreign missionaries and native music professionals. It was considered in Korea as a means to make its nation ‘a strong and wealthy [富國强兵]’ one. Baek Woo-Yong(1883-1930), known as ‘the maestro of music’ at that time, paved a new way for the musical development during this period, leading various musical activities. He took several important roles, such as a conductor of the first Korean military band in the Western style, an inspiring educator for middle and high school students, a composer who wrote songs with ‘enlightening’ themes in their lyrics about women and patriotism, and a transcriber of Korean traditional music into five-line staff notations. He was definitely one of the musicians most influential on the modern development of music in Korea. Whereas Baek Woo-Yong’s effort for the establishment of a new music tradition in Korea was remarkable, his musical activities ended to be neglected in the studies on music of the modern era. The modernization process of Korean music has not been fully analyzed and interpreted in our socio-cultural context. Therefore, this study is significant as it can not only show the beginning stage of western music’s impact on Korean music, but also uncover the reasons for western biased music tradition of the current musicscape of Korea. This research examines one musician’s musical activities, but it certainly provides us with many important facts and evidences for the understanding on the music of the modern era. This research deals with Baek Woo-Yong’s various activities, (rather than focusing on one aspect in dept), in the beginning stage of the modernization process not only to understand his individual achievement but also to understand the musical activities and circumstance of Korea during the modern era as well as now. Our current music still hasn't overcome the conflict with western music. So it is imperative to examine various problems in depth, and this thesis has started with an awareness of this issue. This research is based on primary sources about Baek Woo-Yong's activities that have not been put together to be analyzed and interpreted within a modern social and cultural context. I divide his various activities into three phases. The first is his childhood and schooldays. He learned western ways of thinking while attending German School[德語學校], where he learned the German language, and he incorporated those thoughts into his compositions later. The second is the period when he worked as a professional musician. During this period, he played important roles as a member of a military band of Korea[大韓帝國] as well as an interpreter for the band and the German educator Franz Eckert, and later as a conductor of the band, the symbol of the nation and its people. The third phase can be called the period of ‘enlightenment’, when he worked as a music teacher and taught songs with patriotic lyrics to middle and high school students. He also wrote songs, dealing with women’s issues. In addition, he transcribed Korean traditional music by using a Western notation system and taught the transcription skills at the Court Music Department at that time. Research on Korean music of the modern era has concentrated largely on the transmission of songs[唱歌] and Christian hymns[讚頌歌], and the research on the introduction and reception of Western instrumental music to Korea has been highly limited. Although some research on Baek Woo-Yong has been done, revealing some information about instrumental music of the time., those studies examined his activities limitedly by looking into his role simply as a conductor of the military band mentioned above. Baek Woo-Yong’s activities were much more prominent and significant. He was actually one of the leading musicians actively involved in many aspects of ‘modernizing’ Korean music of the time. He was not only one of the forerunners who developed new music culture in Korea as a performer, conductor, and educator, but he also created discourses on women and nationalism. In fact, the first collection of his songs for women, which was published in the 1920’s, was the first one of such that created important momentum for Korean women to make new discourses. Previous research has not fully revealed his diverse activities, and this study attempts to draw a picture of Baek Woo-Yong’s diverse musical activities as a whole, rather than analyzing and interpreting one aspect in depth. I hope this research that depicts a critical picture of the early modernization process of Korean music will provide us with a new perspective on music in the modern era in Korea.;백우용(白禹鏞, 1883-1930)은 근대 초기(19세기 말에서 1930년까지) 서양음악이 수용되기 시작할 당시 다양한 분야에서 초석을 다진 선도적인 음악가로, 악기 연주부터 지휘, 교육, 작곡, 채보에 이르기까지 여러 영역에서 중요한 역할을 담당했으며, 무엇보다도 우리 문화의 근대 서양음악 수용과 정착에 새로운 방향을 제시했다는 점에서 이해해야 하는 인물이다. 그는 외면적으로 보여지는 군악대 지휘자로서의 역할을 뛰어넘어 여러 영역에서 우리 음악계의 ‘근대화’ 과정에 중요한 역할을 한 음악인으로, 현재 우리가 하고 있는 음악활동의 기초인 서양과 우리 것의 조화의 기반을 마련했다. 그의 업적은 단지 지휘와 연주, 그리고 교육 영역의 음악적 실천에 한정된 것이 아니라, 창작을 통해서 애국과 남녀평등의 계몽적인 생각을 심어주는 인식의 변화까지 추구했다. 우리 음악계는 아직도 서양과 우리 사이에 갈등을 완전히 해소하지 못한 상태가 지속되고 있기에, 그 해결점을 찾기 위한 시도는 다각도에서 심층적으로 이루어져야 한다. 이 논문은 바로 그 문제의식을 갖고 시작한 것이다. 이 연구는 1차 자료를 중심으로 백우용이 활발하게 활동했던 시기를 연구범위로 한정지어 근대의 사회문화적 배경과 서양음악의 수용과 정착의 과정이 이루어지는 여러 과정을 그의 다양한 음악활동과 병치하여 분석하고 해석하여 그가 우리 음악의 근대화 과정에 미친 영향을 확인한다. 세 시기로 나누어 볼 수 있는 그의 음악활동은 민족/국가 상징인 악대에서의 연주자와 지휘자, 민중의 계몽/문명개화를 위하여 만든 작품들, 일반 학생들을 위한 음악교육과 학교 취주악대 창설, 아악부에서의 오선채보와 양악교육 등으로 요약할 수 있다. 개화기 서양음악은 주로 학교와 교회를 통해서 수용되고 정착된 것으로 알려져 있으며, 근대 음악연구 역시 주로 그런 방향에서 이루어져왔다. 따라서 백우용이 활동한 군악대의 탄생자체가 국가의 부강과 관련하여 상징적인 의미가 있으며, 1920년대 최초로 여성을 위한 창가집을 발간한 그의 노력은, 근대 음악 연구에서 ‘민족’과 ‘여성’에 대한 새로운 담론을 형성하는 중요한 계기를 제시한다. 이 논문은 그에 대한 연구가 절대적으로 부족한 상황에서 한 가지 영역이나 역할에 대한 심층적인 분석 및 해석보다는 다양한 영역에서의 그의 음악활동을 탐색하여 백우용이 누구인가에 초점을 맞추었다. 근대화 초기 연구는 음악 분야에서 아직도 시작 단계인 상황이다. 따라서 우리 문화에서 서양음악이 수용되기 시작한 시점의 여러 분야에서 초석을 놓은 그에 대한 연구는 근대 초기 우리 음악이 어떠한 과정으로 전개되었는지 분명하게 반영한다. 궁극적으로 이 논문은 한 음악인에 대한 연구이지만, 우리 근대음악의 시작을 새로운 시각에서 구체적으로 볼 수 있다는 점에 의의를 둔다.
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