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부모의 맞벌이 여부에 따른 아동의 구강건강 상태 연구

Title
부모의 맞벌이 여부에 따른 아동의 구강건강 상태 연구
Other Titles
A Study on Children's Oral Health Status According to Parents' double-Income Appearance
Authors
서민희
Issue Date
2013
Department/Major
임상치의학대학원 임상구강보건학과치위생학전공
Publisher
이화여자대학교 임상치의학대학원
Degree
Master
Advisors
안병덕
Abstract
There is lately an increase in women's social participation due to the changes of socioeconomic environments and family structure, and the number of double-income families is on the rise as well. As a consequence, many preschool children are being placed under the care of childcare centers even though they are in need of parental concerns, and their oral health is eventually disregarded. Parental roles are mandatory for the oral health of children of preschool age, but working parents are more likely to be not concerned about their children's oral health because of time constraints, though oral health problems are not easy to find out in comparison with other diseases. Preschool children's oral health is apt to be damaged under these circumstances. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of employment of working mothers on children's oral health. The subjects in this study were parents of 315 children who were selected by nonprobability convenience sampling from childcare centers located in Gangbuk-gu. The children aged from three to five. After the purpose and method of this study were explained in writing, a survey was conducted with their consent in May, 2013. The childcare centers were visited by the researcher to conduct dental checkups. The findings of the study were as follows: The rate of both parents working stood at 49.8 percent, and families in which only the husbands were working accounted for 50.2 percent. The rate of the two cases were similar. As for the job-related characteristics of the mothers, 21.5 percent were professionals, and 31.1 percent were non-professional workers. 47.5 percent were full-time homemakers. By academic credential, 31.5 percent of the mothers received high-school or lower education, and 64. percent were college graduates. 3.7 percent received graduate-school or higher education. Concerning the number of the children's dft, children with employed mothers had a mean of 1.93 dft, and children with unemployed mothers had a mean of 0.62 dft. The difference between them was statistically significant(p<0.05). Children whose mothers received high-school or lower education had a mean of 2.76 dft, and children whose mothers were college graduates had a mean of 1.56 dft. Children whose mothers received graduate-school or higher education had a mean of 0.67 dft. All the differences were statistically significant(p<0.05). Children whose mothers were professionals had an average of 1.94 dft, and children whose mothers were non-professional workers had a mean of 1.82 dft. Children whose mothers were full-time homemakers had a mean of 0.63 dft. All these differences were statistically significant(p<0.05), and there were no differences according to the income of the parents. Whether both of the parents were working or not made no differences to their concerns for their children's oral health. Whether the parents taught their children how to brush their teeth was analyzed to determine their care for their children's oral health. The dft number of the children who learned Toothbrushing from their non-working mothers was 0.64 on average, and the dft number of the children who didn't learn from their non-working mothers was 0.50 on average. The difference was not statistically significant. The dft number of the children who learned toothbrushing from their working parents was 1.72 on average, and that of the children who didn't learn toothbrushing from their working parents was 3.46 on average. The differences were statistically significant(p<0.05). When a multiple regression analysis was made, whether both of the parents were working or not was identified as a factor to affect the number of dft(p<0.05). The above-mentioned findings suggest that working parents who spend less time with their children should pay more attention to their children's oral health care. The government also should try to create the kind of environments that double-income families can take good care of their children's oral health, and parents should be obliged to have their infants, toddlers and preschoolers get dental checkups to promote the children's oral health. Thus, the government should pay more attention to preschool children's oral health.;최근 사회경제적 환경과 가족구조의 변화로 여성의 사회참여율이 높아지면서 맞벌이 가구가 증가하고 있다. 따라서 부모의 관심이 필요한 시기에 미취학 아동들이 보육시설에 맡겨지면서 구강건강에 소홀하게 된다. 학령전기의 아동은 구강건강을 위해서 보호자의 역할이 절대적으로 필요함에도 불구하고 맞벌이 부모의 경우 시간적 제약과 자녀에 대한 관심 부족으로 다른 신체질환에 비해 잘 드러나지 않는 구강보건을 더 소홀히 할 가능성이 있어 구강건강의 저하를 초래할 수 있다. 본 연구는 부모의 맞벌이로 인한 어머니의 취업상태가 자녀의 구강건강에 미치는 영향을 평가하기 위하여 2013년 5월 한 달 간 강북구 소재의 아동시설 중 비확률 편의추출 된 4곳의 만3세부터 만5세 아동 대상자 315명의 학부모를 대상으로 연구의 목적과 방법을 서면으로 설명하고 동의를 구하여 설문조사를 실시하였고 아동시설을 직접 방문하여 구강검진을 실시하였다. 연구 결과, 부모가 맞벌이 하는 경우는 49.8%, 외벌이인 경우는 50.2%로 비슷한 비율을 차지했다. 어머니의 직업관련 특성은 전문직 21.5%, 비전문직 31.1%, 전업주부 47.5%였다. 부모의 학력 중 어머니의 학력은 고졸이하 31.5%, 대졸 64.8%, 대학원 이상 3.7%이었다. 자녀의 유치 우식치 개수는 어머니가 취업을 한 경우 평균 1.93개, 하지 않은 경우 평균 0.62개로 통계적으로 유의한 차이가 있었다(p<0.05). 자녀의 유치 우식치 개수는 어머니의 학력이 고졸 이하인 경우 평균 2.76개, 대졸인 경우 평균 1.56개, 대학원 이상인 경우 평균 0.67개로 통계적으로 유의한 차이가 있는 것으로 나타났다(p<0.05). 자녀의 유치 우식치 개수는 어머니의 직업이 전문직일 때 평균 1.94개, 비전문직인 경우 평균 1.82개, 전업주부의 경우 평균 0.63개로 통계적으로 유의한 차이가 있는 것으로 나타났으나(p<0.05), 부모의 소득에 따른 자녀의 dft는 통계적으로 유의한 차이가 없었다. 부모의 자녀 구강건강에 대한 관심도는 맞벌이 여부에 따른 차이가 없었다. 부모의 자녀 구강건강에 대한 실천도를 파악하기 위해 잇솔질 지도여부를 조사하였는데 자녀의 유치 우식치 개수는 외벌이 부모에서 잇솔질 지도를 할 경우 평균 0.64개, 지도를 하지 않을 경우 평균 0.50개로 통계적으로 유의한 차이가 없었다. 자녀의 유치 우식치 개수는 맞벌이 부모에서 잇솔질 지도를 할 경우 평균 1.72개, 안 할 경우 3.46개로 통계적으로 유의한 차이가 있었다(p<0.05). 자녀의 구강건강에 대한 다중회귀분석 결과 유치 우식치 개수에 영향을 미치는 것은 맞벌이 유무인 것으로 나타났다(p<0.05). 이상의 연구 결과를 종합하여 볼 때, 상대적으로 자녀와 보내는 시간이 적은 맞벌이 부부가 자녀의 구강건강관리에 더욱 관심을 가져야 하며 정부차원에서도 맞벌이 가정에서 자녀의 구강건강 관리를 할 수 있는 환경을 조성하기 위해 사회적인 방안을 마련해야 할 것이다.
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