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C. A. Debussy의 가곡집 에 관한 연구

C. A. Debussy의 가곡집 에 관한 연구
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A Study on the mélodie 《Ariettes Oubliées》by C. A. Debussy
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대학원 음악학부
이화여자대학교 대학원
드뷔시(Claude Achille Debussy, 1862-1918)는 19세기 낭만주의 음악에서 20세기 현대음악으로 향하는 과도기적 인물로 인상주의 음악이라는 새로운 음악 양식을 확립시킨 작곡가이다. 그는 당대 회화에서의 인상주의와 문학에서의 상징주의 어법을 음악에 도입시켜 기존의 독일 낭만주의의 조성, 화성, 리듬, 선율 등에서 탈피하려 하였다. 그 결과 음향, 색채, 분위기를 중시하는 인상주의 기법을 확립시켜 나갔다. 또한 그는 상징주의 시인들과 교류하면서 그들의 시를 선택하여 인상주의 기법을 사용한 음악으로 표현하였다. 드뷔시는 상징주의 시인들 중에서도 특히 베를레느(Paul Marie Verlaine, 1844-1896)의 작품을 많이 선택하여 작곡하였다. 이는 베를레느 시에서 나타나는 음악적인 리듬감과 상징주의 기법이 드뷔시가 추구하는 암시적이고 모호한 분위기와 색채, 음의 뉘앙스 등 분위기를 묘사하는 인상주의 기법과 맞아 떨어졌기 때문이다. 본 논문에서는 베를레느의 시집 『말없는 연가 (Romances sans Paroles)』에서 6개의 시를 발췌하여 작곡한 《잊혀진 소곡들(Ariettes oubliées)》을 중심으로 프랑스 가곡의 역사, 인상주의의 특징, 베를레느 시의 음악적 리듬과 운율성, 드뷔시의 음악에 나타난 인상주의 기법과 그것이 어떻게 성악부와 반주부에 적용되어 표현되었는지를 알아보겠다.;Claude Achille Debussy (1862-1918), who lived during the period of transition from romanticism in the 19th century to contemporary music in the 20th century, was a composer who established a new musical principle called impressionism. He attempted to escape from the compositions, harmony, rhythm, and melody of the legacy German romanticism by introducing symbolic phrases of writing during the era of impressionism to music. Thus, impressionistic techniques were defined with emphasis on the sound, tune, and mood. Also, he exchanged thoughts with symbolism poets and articulated their poems into music through his impressionistic techniques. Particularly, Debussy composed many pieces by selecting the poems of Paul Marie Verlaine (1844-1896) among the symbolism poets. Verlaine's poems reflected musical rhythm and symbolism techniques which matched Debussy's implicit and vague mood, tune, and sound of impressionism techniques. This thesis discusses the history of French songs, characteristics of impressionism, Debussy's impressionism techniques, and the applications of rhythms and rhymes in Verlaine's poems by focusing on 《Ariettes oubliées》 which was composed with 6 poems from Verlaine's 『Romances sans Paroles』 《Ariettes oubliées(1885-1887)》 is composed of six different works based Verlaine’s poems. It is the first mélodie of Debussy and composed just one year after he won the Rome prize between 1885 and 1887. The six poems of Verlaine is extracted from his『Romance sans Paroles』and it has four different subtitles which are ‘Ariettes oubliées’, ‘Birds in the night’, ‘Paysages Belges’, and ‘Aquarelles.’ Debussy choose lyrics in ‘Ariettes oubliées’ for his first, second and third work, ‘Paysages Belges’for fourth and ‘Aquarelles’ for his fifth and sixth work. There are several distinguishing features shown in this mélodie. First, the characteristics of vowel, consonant and French unique style in nuance describes musically and poetic rhythm which is shown in rhyme expresses melodiously. Also, the mélodie is characterized by using frequent syncopation and irregular dividing measures by hemiola rhythm. Second, it is an ambiguous to find key center through the six songs. Using various scales, chromatic progression, and avoiding triad leads to useless of key signature. This phenomenon develops to atonal music of contemporary. Third, compared to the accompaniment, the independent meaning of voice melody weakens and reciting note appears more but the portion of accompaniment increases. The mood of entire song is shown through introduction and it makes complete by postlude. Moreover, rhythm which reveals in voice part of melody and nuance of language deliberate color and sensibility by accompaniment section. Debussy becomes more mature in music throughout Verlaine. His musical progression leads the position of French mélodie which isn’t a main genre in French music to compare with German Lied like high quality of art songs.
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