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Olivier Messiaen의 Le Merle Noir pour Flûte et Piano 분석연구

Olivier Messiaen의 Le Merle Noir pour Flûte et Piano 분석연구
Other Titles
A Study on Le Merle Noir pour Flûte et Piano by Olivier Messiae
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대학원 음악학부
이화여자대학교 대학원
올리비에 메시앙은 20세기 현대음악의 다양한 소재로의 변화 안에서 특히 자연에 대한 관심과 사랑을 새소리를 이용해 하나의 음악적 모티브로 사용한 대표적인 작곡가이다. 그의 작품 세계에 있어 새소리는 장식과 그 이상의 의미를 지니고 있으며 새 소리를 통한 자유로운 리듬과 멜로디를 표현하는 수단으로 사용하였다. 메시앙의 음악은 크게 세 가지의 범주로 나눌 수가 있는데 1945년 이전에는 가톨릭 신자로서 종교음악적인 색채를 내포한 음악을 작곡하였고, 50년 이후에는 어린 시절부터 관심을 가져온 새소리를 이용한 음악적 작품을 썼다. 60년대 이후에는 이러한 새소리와 종교음악을 함께 표현하며 작품 안에서 새소리와 더불어 파도 소리등 살아있는 자연의 소리를 음악적 리듬표현으로 사용하였다. 본 논문에서는 플루트와 피아노를 위한 작품 ‘Le Merle Noir’분석을 통해 새소리의 형식이나 리듬, 표현 기법 등이 어떠한 방식으로 변화, 발전, 묘사되었는지를 분석하고 그 외에 새소리와 관련된 작품들 중 대표적으로 관현악곡 ‘새들의 기상’, 실내악곡 ‘세상의 종말을 위한 4중주’, 피아노곡 ‘프렐류드’, 그리고 마지막으로 종교음악인 ‘아기예수님을 바라보는 20개의 시선’을 통한 새소리의 음악적 모티브에 대하여 알아보기로 한다. 이와 더불어 메시앙의 작품세계에 중요한 역할을 주었던 새소리 작품에서 나타난 공통적인 음악적 표현과 성향을 알아보고 리듬, 셈여림 등 메시앙 특유의 음악적 색채와 특징 및 표현성과 다양성을 살펴보고자 한다.;When modern musicians started experimenting with various materials to create their music in the 20th century, Olivier Messiaen became famous for using birdsong as a musical motif to express his love of nature. In his music, birdsong had profound significance that went beyond being a mere ornament to his musical work. He used birdsong as a way of expressing rhythm and melody in his music more freely. The motivation for this study is to study how Messiaen, who had immense interest in birdsong among all sounds of the nature, expressed and described birdsong. This paper investigates how birdsongs had influenced the music of Messiaen and the way Messiaen utilized birdsong as materials for his musical expression. By analyzing “Le Merle Noir” in which birdsong was used throughout the composition, the paper analyzes how the forms, rhythm and technic use of expressing birdsong had changed and evolved. In addition, the paper studies the musical motif of birdsong in his musical works related to birdsong : orchestral music“Reveil Des Oiseaux”, chamber music“Quatuor pour la Fin du Temp”, piano music “Prelude” and religious music“Vingt Regars sur l'Enfant-Jesus” Through such analyses above, the common factors that underlie Messiaen's musical expressions of birdsong can be derived. First, he expressed birdsong through division of rhythms, syncopation, in addition, expansion, contraction and reversal of sounds. Second, he maximized the expression of dynamic notes to create an echo effect in the vibration of sounds. Finally, he utilized the effect of grace notes to express his music in a variety of ways. It is evident that Messiaen used birdsong as a material for his musical expression and not merely as a sound. The fact that he obtained such unique tone and sound of his music from birdsong suggests that he had made tremendous efforts to make music by recording scores directly from birdsong he heard in the nature. He used birdsong as a means to express freedom that exists within the inner world of human beings. To express birdsong as realistic and clear as possible in music, he experimented with his musical composition in terms of range of tones, which he used freely without limit, and addition, expansion and contraction of birdsong, which has quick rhythm. There were some technical problems associated with accuracy and reality of writing down scores directly from birdsong, but his approach to musical composition as he expressed in music birdsong directly experienced from the nature is considered a revolutionary event in history of music. The paper concludes that Messiaen strove for diversity in his musical expression by using sounds of the nature, birdsong in particular, and such power and diversity of his musical expression laid a foundation for growth of modern music in the 20th century.
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