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朝鮮末期 崔奭煥(1808-1883以後)과 葡萄圖 連幅屛風

Title
朝鮮末期 崔奭煥(1808-1883以後)과 葡萄圖 連幅屛風
Other Titles
A Study on Choi Seok Hwan and Joint-Paneled Folding Screen of Grape Paintings in the Late Joseon Dynasty
Authors
정현희
Issue Date
2013
Department/Major
대학원 미술사학과
Publisher
이화여자대학교 대학원
Degree
Master
Advisors
홍선표
Abstract
포도(葡萄)는 예로부터 왕성하게 뻗어나가는 넝쿨과 알알히 맺힌 열매로 인해 다산과 번성을 상징하여 많은 공예품의 문양과 그림의 주제로서 활용되었다. 특히 조선시대에 많이 그려진 포도도는 회화에서 뚜렷한 비중을 차지하고 있어 학계의 관심이 요구되는 화제이다. 조선시대 포도 화가의 대열에서 가장 마지막에 등장하는 최석환(崔奭煥, 1808-1883 이후)은 최근 많은 전래작이 공개되고 단독 전시가 열리는 등 관심이 모아지고 있으며, 그가 주력한 포도도 연폭병풍은 19세기 화단의 다양한 경향을 보여주는 시각자료로서 중요하다. 포도는 서역에서부터 한나라를 통해 고려로 유입된 이래, 그 열매와 시렁의 차폐성으로 인해 사찰과 궁궐에서부터 식재되어 온 귀한 과실이었고 점차 정원 조성의 한 요소로 자리 잡았다. 실생활에서 문인들의 사랑을 받았던 포도는 조선시대 사군자와 함께 지속적으로 그려져 왔으며, 조선 중기 신사임당과 황집중으로 인해 본격적으로 그려지기 시작했다. 황집중은 절도 있는 줄기와 생동감, 고매한 열매의 모습을 담은 변각구도의 절지풍 포도도로 조선시대 문인화로서의 포도도의 정형을 이룩하였다. 17세기 이후로는 이계호의 등장으로 이전과 구별되는 양상이 보여 진다. 전수식 포도도가 그려진 연폭병풍을 남기고 있어 주목되는 화가인 이계호는 이전까지의 청초한 모습의 포도와 대비되는 모습으로 병들고 상한 포도 잎의 자연스런 상태를 큰 화면에 채웠으며, 얽히고 휘는 포도 넝쿨의 움직임을 담을 수 있는 구도를 취하였다. 이후 홍수주, 심정주, 권경 등의 전문 화가를 거쳐 발달해온 조선시대 포도도는 최석환의 활동시기인 19세기 이후에 이르러 민화화되며 많은 편화와 축 그림, 병풍이 전하고 있다. 최석환은 무진(戊辰, 1808)년생으로 호(號)가 낭곡(浪谷)이고 전북 임피(臨陂)에 거주했으며 포도를 잘 그렸다는 『근역서화징(槿域書畵徵)』의 기록을 제외하고는 생애에 대한 정보가 전무하다. 본 논문에서는 최석환의 작품 분석을 통해 그가 강릉최씨(江陵崔氏) 서얼출신일 가능성을 제기하고, ‘낭곡’과 함께 별호로 사용했던 ‘고봉산인(古峰散人)’를 확인하면서, 전북 군산에 위치한 취성산 아래 거주했음을 유추하였다. 또한 최석환의 포도도 연폭병풍 변화양상을 통해 추정한 작품 제작년도를 통해 그의 몰년을 1883년 이후로 비정하였다. 밝혀진 것만 40여건이 넘는 그의 전래작 중 70%에 달하는 작품이 포도도이며, 그 중 11틀이 연폭병풍으로 제작되었다. 연폭 병풍을 중심으로 한 최석환의 포도도는 1870년대 이후에 더욱 정형화되어 그의 전성기로 구분된다. 연폭병풍화 3,4폭 하단에서 시작된 포도 줄기는 양쪽으로 나뉘는데 좌측의 넝쿨이 더욱 주가 되어 원과 'S'자를 그리며 휘돌아 나간다. 농묵으로 서예의 필법을 살린 주 넝쿨의 표현과 많은 기년작, 전례를 찾을 수 없는 연폭병풍화 제작 활동으로 요약되는 그의 포도도 특징 또한 전성기에 더욱 집약적으로 나타난다. 본 논문에서는 최석환이 많은 시간과 비용, 정성을 필요로 하는 포도도 연폭병풍 제작 활동을 활발히 할 수 있었던 요인으로 조선 말기의 네 가지 현상을 들어 규명하였다. 길상성과 장식성 추구로 인해 증가한 포도도의 수요와 중앙화단에서 유행하던 연폭병풍 형식의 수용이 포도도 연폭병풍 제작의 동기로 추측된다. 이어 호남지방의 화가의 활발한 서화유통을 가능케 한 시장의 발달과 호남화단의 성장, 그리고 18세기 이후 ‘치(痴)’와 ‘벽(癖)’ 추구로 인한 전문화 경향이 최석환의 지속적인 포도도 연폭병풍 제작 활동을 이끌어 냈을 것으로 짐작된다. 조선시대 마지막 포도 화가 최석환은 전통의 포도도를 계승함과 더불어 개성적인 연폭병풍화의 제작으로 근대 민화 범람으로 급증한 포도도 형성에 주요한 영향을 미쳤다. 최석환의 회화작품을 분석하고 전후의 포도도 양상을 살펴봄으로써 조선시대 포도도는 물론 말기와 근대에 제작된 민화에 대한 연구 촉진의 계기가 될 것으로 기대한다.; From ancient times, grapes were used as a theme and pattern for many paintings and crafts because of their symbolic representation. Due to their image of energetic vines flourishing over the ground and the richness of the clustered berries, grapes were a symbol of fertility and prosperity. Especially, grape paintings that were much drawn in the Joseon Dynasty is a topic of importance that requires the academic community's attention. Choi Seok-Hwan (1808-after 1883), who was the last among the painters who painted grapes in the Joseon Dynasty, has been recently receiving more attention as many of his past works were revealed and exclusive exhibitions of his paintings were held. Joint-paneled folding screens of grape paintings that he concentrated on is noteworthy because they serve as valuable sources that show various trends that existed in the 19th century's painting circles. Ever since grapes were introduced into the Goryeo Dynasty from the West via the Han Dynasty, they were considered as precious fruits and were grown and cultivated within the walls of temples and palaces for the screening nature of their trellising vines and gradually found their place as an element in gardening. During the Joseon dynasty, literati men continuously painted grapes, which was one of their favorites in everyday life, along with the Sagunja, also known as the Four Gentlemen. Especially Shin Saimdang and Hwang Jip-Jung painted grapes regularly in the mid-Joseon Dynasty. Hwang Jip-Jung established the archetype of literati style grape painting through the remote-corner style using a byeon-gak arrangement that embodies the lively motion of vivid and yet self-restrained vines and the noble form of the berries. After the 17th century, Lee Gae-Ho had introduced a phase distinguished from the earlier style. Lee Gae-Ho was a painter who is presently receiving more attention through his works of full-sized grape painting on joint-paneled folding screens. In contrast to the previous grape paintings that only show neat and flawless clusters of berries, he instead filled the large canvas with grapes that seem more natural showing their sick and withered leaves and employed an arrangement that could incorporate the curved and entangled movements of the grapevines. Thereafter, grape paintings of the Joseon Dynasty had evolved with its professional painters such as Hong Su-Ju, Sim Jeong-Ju and Gwon Kyeong. With the passing of the 19th century, which was Choi Seok-Hwan's active years, grape paintings became folk paintings, resulting in more album leaves, hanging scroll paintings and folding screens. With the exception of Geunyeokseohwajing (槿域書畵徵) which records that Choi Seok-Hwan was born in the Year of Mujin (戊辰, 1808), lived in Impi, Jeollabuk-do, and that he painted grapes using Nanggok as his pen-name, any other information on his life or career is non-existent. Through careful analysis of his works, this study raises the possibility that Choi Seok-Hwan may have been an illegitimate child of the Chois of Gangneung, identifies Gobongsanin, an additional pseudonym that he used along with Nanggok, and inferred that he lived near the base of Chwiseong mountain in Gunsan, Jeollabuk-do. Furthermore, the predicted year of his death seems to be after 1883, when using an estimated timeline inferred by interpreting and comparing the variations and transitions shown in his grape paintings. Up to 70% of more than 40 pieces of his works that are currently brought to light are grape paintings and eleven of them are joint-paneled folding screens. Choi Seok-Hwan's grape painting with focus on the joint-paneled folding screens achieved a more fixed and set form after the 1870s, which is considered to be the prime years of his career. The grapevine begins at the lower end of the 3rd and 4th panels of the screen and branches into two separate stalks. The vine on the left forms the main branch, which extends in a round motion drawing a circle and onto an S-shaped stroke. The characteristics of Choi's grape paintings summarized as his use of the calligraphic techniques with dark Chinese ink in expressing the main grapevine, the multitudinous production of paintings after the age of 60, and an unprecedented creation of joint-paneled folding screens, are all more prominent during his peak years. This study examines four phenomena during the late Joseon Dynasty as factors that allowed Choi Seok-Hwan to actively indulge in producing joint-paneled folding screens of grape paintings which could be a time-consuming, expensive, and an effortful endeavor that necessitate passion. The increase in demand of grape paintings due to the public seeking signs of luck and decorative value along with the fact that joint-paneled folding screen form that was popular within the central painting circles was widely accepted, appear to have induced the production of grape paintings in such form. In addition, it seems that the emergence and development of a market for active distribution of Honam artists' paintings, growth of Honam painting circles, and the consolidation of specialization and professionalism by pursuing the virtues of 'Chi (痴, single-mindedness and madness)' and 'Byeok (癖, fanaticism and addiction)' after the 18th century, led to Choi's relentless creation of joint-paneled folding screens of grape painting. The last grape-painter of the Joseon Dynasty, Choi Seok-Hwan had a profound effect on the establishment of grape paintings that increased rapidly by the overflow of modern folk paintings while successfully passing on the tradition of grape paintings as well as producing unique and distinctive joint-paneled folding screen paintings. I anticipate that by examining Choi Seok-Hwan's paintings and studying the trends and aspects of other grape paintings created prior and subsequent to his works, it will facilitate further research on not only Joseon Dynasty grape paintings but also late Joseon Dynasty and Modern folk paintings.
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