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몸뻬의 보급과 확산 과정에 관한 연구

Title
몸뻬의 보급과 확산 과정에 관한 연구
Other Titles
A Study on Momppe's Introduction and Adoption in Korea
Authors
윤주리
Issue Date
2011
Department/Major
대학원 의류학과
Publisher
이화여자대학교 대학원
Degree
Master
Advisors
홍나영
Abstract
이 논문은 몸뻬의 보급과 확산 과정에 관하여 고찰한 것이다. 몸뻬는 일본 에도(江戶)시대 동북지방의 농촌에서 여성들이 노동할 때 입던 노동복으로서 바지의 통이 전체적으로 풍성하고 밑단을 오므려 발목에 맞게 한 바지 형태의 옷이다. 몸뻬가 우리나라에 보급된 시기는 정확하진 않지만 애국 반 활동에서 여성들을 방공훈련에 참여하게 함에 따라 복장에 활동성과 간편성이 필요해진 1940년경으로 추정된다. 보급 초창기에는 방공연습 시에 입도록 권유하는 정도였지만, 일본의 계속된 전쟁수행으로 노동력과 물자동원을 위해서 방공연습뿐만 아니라 평상시에도 일상복으로 착용할 것을 강요하였다. 우리나라 여성들은 다양한 인식과 반응을 보이며 몸뻬를 수용하였다. 몸뻬를 수용하는 것을 반발한 측은 짧은 저고리 아래 몸뻬를 입어 허리가 드러나 보이는 것과 속옷과 같은 형태의 바지를 겉옷으로 입어 가랑이가 보인다는 거부감 때문이었다. 그리고 이것은 당시 여성들이 지켜야 할 몸가짐에 대한 사회적 가치관에 반(反)하였기 때문이다. 몸뻬의 보급률이 저조하자 조선총독부는 몸뻬의 착용을 강요하기 시작하였다. 몸뻬를 입지 않으면 관공서를 들어갈 수 없었고, 전차나 버스 같은 교통수단도 이용할 수 없었다. 또한 폭력을 가하는 등의 신체적인 외압도 가하였다. 이러한 가운데 몸뻬를 수용한 측은 대부분 노동을 해야만 하는 시골 여성들이었다. 처음에는 조선총독부가 입으라고 해서 입었지만 강제징용과 전쟁터로 나간 남성들을 대신해서 야외 노동을 할 때 입어보니 치마보다 편리하고 일의 효율성도 좋아 큰 반감 없이 노동복으로 계속 착용하였다. 몸뻬의 확산은 일본으로부터의 해방 이후에도 계속되었다. 1945∼1950년대는 해방 이후 경제적인 곤궁함과 곧 이어 발발한 6․25전쟁이 가져온 물자부족과 남성 동원으로 인한 남성 부재의 현실 때문에 몸뻬를 계속 착용할 수밖에 없었다. 한복을 지어 입을 만한 경제적인 여유가 없는 여성들과 노동계층의 여성들은 군복(軍服)으로 몸뻬를 만들어 저고리나 서양식 블라우스와 함께 착용하였다. 1960∼1980년대 역시 빈곤층 여성들의 노동복이자 일상복으로 확산되었는데 이전시대와는 다르게 값싼 합성섬유의 개발과 염색 및 가공기술의 발달로 회색이나 검정색의 단조로운 몸뻬가 아닌 꽃무늬, 물방울무늬, 기하학무늬 등 다양한 무늬가 있는 화려한 색의 몸뻬가 나타났다. 1990∼2010년 사회의 모든 분야가 급변하는 가운데서도 농어촌 여성들은 노동복이자 일상복으로 몸뻬를 여전히 착용하고 있다. 또한 몸뻬에 여러 가지 의미가 부여되어 가난했던 시절 가족들을 위해 고생해야 했던 어머니들의 희생, 외모를 치장하는 것에 무관심한 아줌마, 농촌을 상징하는 대표적인 물건 등의 의미를 가지게 되었다. 그리고 편리성과 실용성의 이유로 농어촌의 여성들뿐만 아니라 과거 몸뻬 착용의 경험이 있던 60대 이상의 대도시 여성들에게도 일상복으로 착용되고 있다. 몸뻬는 사회적․경제적 상황이 가져온 몸뻬에 대한 인식 변화 때문에 확산될 수 있었다. 몸뻬가 일본에 의해 처음 보급되었을 때의 반발은 일제강점기와 6․25전쟁으로 인한 여성 노동영역의 확대, 1960년대 이촌향도 현상으로 인한 농촌 노동력의 부족, 1970년대의 새마을운동으로 인한 여성노동력의 필수화, 1990년대 이후 더 심각해진 농어촌 일손부족으로 남성들의 노동에 여성들의 동등한 참여와 같은 몸뻬를 계속 착용할 수밖에 없는 사회적․경제적 상황으로 인해 상쇄되었다. 몸뻬가 확산될 수 있었던 또 다른 요인은 몸뻬를 대신할 만한 노동복의 부재이다. 이전까지 우리나라 여성들의 노동복이라고 할 만한 것은 행주치마가 전부였다. 하지만 시대적 상황은 여성들이 기존에 해왔던 노동보다 더 힘든 노동을 필요로 했기에 느슨하고 풍성해서 활동하기에도 편리하고 실용성도 뛰어난 몸뻬를 노동복으로 수용하였다. 그리고 이러한 요인들이 서로 상호작용을 하며 몸뻬의 확산 과정에 영향을 끼침 으로 서 몸뻬가 노동복뿐만 아니라 일상복으로 확산될 수 있었다. 이상에서 몸뻬의 확산은 우리나라의 근 현대시기에 일어난 역사적인 사건들과 이것이 만들어낸 시대적‧경제적 상황에 의해 이루어졌음을 알 수 있었다. 본 연구 결과를 밑거름으로 하여 보다 더 다양한 신문기사 자료, 사진 자료, 구술 자료의 보강을 통해 앞으로 몸뻬에 대한 발전된 후속 연구가 이루어지기를 기대한다.;This study on the introduction and adoption Momppe in Korea and how it was popularized. Momppe is a type of work pants worn by women while doing manual labor at agricultural villages in the north eastern parts of the country during the Edo period in Japan. Momppe is characterized by a loose crotch area and rubber bands that are put inside around the circumference of the bottom openings so that they adjust to the size of the wearer's ankles. Although it is not clear when exactly Momppe spread to Korea, it is estimated to be in the 1940s, when comfortable, casual wear was desired as women started taking part in air defense drills as part of their ‘patriotic group’ activities. At first, women were only recommended that they wear Momppe during air defense drills. But as Japan plunged further into war, for labor and material mobilization, women were forced to wear Momppe not only during air defense drills but at normal times as well. Korean women had various perceptions of and reactions to Momppe as they started wearing it. There were those who were opposed to wearing Momppe, who were reluctant about wearing it because their waist would be revealed and their crotch area not hidden. Furthermore, wearing such type of clothing was not considered morally right according to the social norms for women at the time. As more women resisted wearing Momppe, the Japanese government starting to crack down on those not wearing it. Not in Momppe, women couldn't enter a government or municipal office, nor could they use public transport including the train or the bus. Even physical pressure was used, including violence. But there were those that had a more open mind when it came to wearing Momppe, most of whom were from rural villages and had to do manual labor. At first, they wore it because the Japanese government told them to. But when they wore it while they toiled in the fields in place of men who had been forcibly drafted into the war, they found it more comfortable than a skirt and even found that work efficiency went up. Accordingly, they accepted Momppe without much resistance and continued wearing it as work wear. Momppe was spread widely after the liberation from Japanese rule. Between 1945 to 1950, there was prevalent poverty across the country as it had just been liberated, and there was a lack of materials and a lack in the number of men available for work as they were mobilized by the Korean War that broke out soon after the liberation. Amid such situation, women were left with no option than to continue wearing Momppe. Women who were not in a financial position to make and wear Hanbok, as well as women who did manual labor, made Momppe with service uniforms and wore it with Jeogori or a Western-style blouse. Between the 1960s to the 1980s, the momentum continued as Momppe was spread as work wear as well as casual wear for women in poverty. However, in contrast to the previous era, with the development of cheap synthetic fibers and advancements in dyeing and processing technologies, gone was the monotonous simple white or black design of Momppe. Instead, colorful Momppes with various patterns, such as that of flower, waterdrop, and geometry made their appearance. Between the 1990's to the 2010, despite all the rapid changes taking place in all areas of society, Momppe was still being worn by poor women in agricultural villages as their everyday wear and workwear. In addition, Momppe has been bestowed with a variety of meanings and now symbolizes many things, including the sacrifice of mothers who had to go through a lot of hardships for their family during the times of poverty, the middle aged women who lost their sense of adornment, and the farming villages. Furthermore, with its convenience and practicality, Momppe is not only being worn by women in agricultural villages but by women over 60 in metropolitan areas who have experience of wearing it with short Jeogori before. Momppe could spread widely because of the changes in its perception brought by the socioeconomic situation. The initial backlash against Momppe when it was first introduced by the Japanese government is nowhere to be seen today. The socioeconomic situation, of women having to go into the labor force as equals to men, caused by the following factors is responsible for this change: expansion in the women labor force during colonial rule of Korea by Japan and as a consequence of the Korea War; insufficient labor force in agricultural villages as a result of the rural-to-urban migrations in the 1960s; necessitation of women labor force in the 1970s by the New Village Movement; and lack of labor in agricultural villages, the situation of which was aggravated after the 1990s. Lack of an alternative to Momppe was also one of the factors for the popularization of Momppe. Before Momppe came into the scene, the only type of garment that could possibly serve as work wear for women was an apron. But the situation of the time was more dire and required women do harder labor than one that could be done with only an apron on. Comfortable and highly practical with its loose and comfortable fit, Momppe was perfect as work wear, and was chosen as such. All these factors interacted with one another to affect the spread of Momppe, and made Momppe to be not only work wear but everyday wear. This study took a close look at the introduction of Momppe and analyzed the factors that made it become a part of everyday life. It was found that popularization of Momppe occurred based on historical events that took place in this country in the modern times and the socioeconomic situation that they created. It is hoped that more extensive and in-depth studies on Momppe will take place in the future based on the findings of this study through the research of even more data, including newspaper articles, photos, and oral history.
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