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네오 노마드를 위한 공기주입형 모듈러복 개발

Title
네오 노마드를 위한 공기주입형 모듈러복 개발
Other Titles
Development of Air-Containing Modular wear for the Neo-nomad
Authors
손수민
Issue Date
2011
Department/Major
대학원 의류학과
Publisher
이화여자대학교 대학원
Degree
Doctor
Advisors
최혜선
Abstract
Modern society's state-of-the-art transportation and communication technology have created a new concept of nomad, the "Neo-nomad". A neo-nomad is a contemporary individual who has embraced a digital lifestyle, both physically and psychologically. These nomads experience more diverse changes in their circumstances through frequent long-distance travel and longer stays in non-places through migration along the infrastructure. These characteristics of the neo-nomad demand more diverse functions in clothing. The purpose of this research is to develop function-oriented air-containing modular wear that takes these mobile characteristics of the neo-nomad into consideration. Based on the results of research and analysis of reputable designers and highly-functional apparel brands about clothing's functional aspects related its mobility, it was found that there was a strong demand for responses to non-places. After conducting research and analysis on the features of air-containing wear, it was concluded that air-containing wear was suitable for neo-nomads, because it enabled the wearer to feel comfortable in non-spaces, keep warm in changing heat conditions and enjoy its portability. This research applied the results from observation and survey on functional aspects and significances of the air-containing wear and follow-up analysis to the development of the air-containing wear. An air-containing wear was designed on a modular basis so that each individual could choose a function customized specifically for her in certain circumstances. Each module was developed based on Ergonomics, and its effectiveness was verified through evaluation. 1. Deriving the functions of Air-containing Modular Wear for the Neo-nomad To derive the necessary functions in an air-containing wear, passengers moving in a train cabin as a non-space were observed while airplane, train, bus passengers were surveyed. The survey covered a passenger's demands for comforts in a cabin, and physical and psychological functions under condition changes. The survey questionnaire consisted of questions on topics such as the most frequent activities in a cabin, related discomforts and enhancements to the activities, necessary functions for varying heat conditions, discomforts arising from the gaze of others, and the relevant reaction to it. Based on the results from the survey, the single most frequent activity in a cabin turned out to be "Sleep." Also, the greatest discomfort was involuntary nodding of the head while asleep, and waist discomfort. functions demanded mostly by the survey respondents were head and waist comforts. There was a distinctive difference between men and women with regard to the demand for comforts and functions, and women seemed more demanding in that regard. Many survey respondents commented that they usually prepared extra clothes for varying heat conditions, but that this felt inconvenient because of the volume of the clothes. Discomfort arising from the gaze of others seemed not that critical, and was a more substantial issue for women than for men. Applying the survey results to the clothing development, the main target was selected as a female whose height is between155-165cm. 2. Making of Air Container and Research on Optimal Shape For an air-containing jacket to carry out its functions, it is necessary for the air container to be close to the human body and to have an efficient structure for the prevention of excessive air injection. In this regard, the change of the air container's shape was analyzed. Air injection lengthens the container's height, but shortens the container's width and length. A two-dimensional air container's height depends on the shortest distance between the welded seam located in the edge of the container. In addition, the container made in flexible materials could inflate up to the highest height only when the distance between the welded seam in opposite direction to the seam is more than approximately 175% of the shortest distance. In this regard, a three-dimensional structure was developed to overcome the height issue of a two-dimensional container. This research applied a silk-screen method using a heat press machine, which is an easy-to-access and economical welding method. Therefore, a three-dimensional container could be developed through a welding means that utilized intermediary paper used in the silk-screen method. Compared to a two-dimensional container, a three-dimensional container was more efficient, in that the surface of the container was smaller in the same height condition. 3. Development and Evaluation of the Neo-nomad Modular Wear Based on the results of the survey and observation, it was determined that the practical functions of the air-containing wear were comfort through head and waist support, heat retention and portability. The air-containing wear was designed on a modular basis so that each individual could choose a function customized just for him or her. Modules were inter-combined with each other using a layering system that integrated individual items. The modular wear consisted of a vest for comfort function, a jacket for heat retention function and a pouch for portability and blocking the gaze of others. An air container for each module was made and applied to the cloth. The vest enabled an air-containing neck cushion for head support to be detachable and was also embedded with air-containing waist cushion for waist support. Because existing neck cushions had no support function for head forward nodding, the clothing was designed to strengthen head support against forward nodding. For design of the waist cushion, the rubbings of back of 6 persons were taken in terms of chair-back type and seating position. In results, lumbar and below-lumbar body parts were chosen as the key parts to be supported. Using average test results, the shape of the waist cushion was designed. Taking pre-air-containing changes in width, length and height, a 110% enlargement ratio was selected, which kept an optimal surface covering on all supported parts without excessive inflation. Measurement of body pressure distribution and subjective comfort evaluation were conducted to verify the vest's effectiveness. In the comparison tests of measurement of body pressure distribution with existing cushions, our clothing had higher body pressure near the lumbar part, and thus better waist support. Furthermore, in the subjective comfort evaluation, our cushion had better evaluation compared to exiting cushions in the market. Field tests conducted in a train and on a bus indicated that our clothing's jacket had less mitigation of comfort than existing jackets. From the tests and relevant results mentioned so far, it was proven that in terms of comfort, our module was more effective. The heat retention jacket was by itself an air-containing type. Based on the heat condition varying on the welding method in the previous research, welding design in a bar type with 0.5 cm width , 10 cm length and 3 cm gap was chosen and designed. To make a welding design that enabled free arm motion in a jacket with a sleeve, the welding design was re-arranged, and the sleeve's welding design was modified to have a 2 cm gap. To realize simultaneous air injection into the sleeve's front and rear, a kimono-sleeve type was adopted. A thermal mannequin was used to evaluate the heat retention function of the jacket. The heat retention level of the jacket with air injection was 0.86 clo, while that of the jacket without it was 0.55 clo. Post-air-containing heat retention level was higher than that of a normal parka (0.70 clo). The difference between pre- and post-air-injection was 0.31 clo, which is close to a normal jacket's heat retention level of 0.35 clo, indicating that air injection could have an additional heat retention effect equivalent to that of a normal jacket. Therefore, it was proven that the clothing enabled neo-nomads to have selective heat retention options for each heating condition. Portability is air injection's own function, in that the air container's volume can be adjusted by the inflows and outflows of air. Effectiveness related to adjustable volume could strengthen portability. Maximum adjustable volume was approximately 13,900㎖ in every module of our cloth. Furthermore, a pouch that could contain a whole modular wear was designed in order to portably carry the clothing. A passenger could avoid the gaze of others because a pouch was designed to cover her knee. Based on the abovementioned research results, the air-containing wear provided its wearer with such function options as better comfort and heat retention through a differentiated wearing system. In addition, the air-containing wear could provide neo-nomads with flexible options or functions to enable comfort in diverse and changing conditions.;교통과 통신이 발달된 현대 사회는 새로운 유목자인 네오 노마드(Neo-Nomad)를 탄생시켰다. 네오 노마드는 도시화에 의해 물리적, 정신적, 디지털로의 이동이 잦아진 현대인을 일컫는 말이다. 이들은 과거에 비하여 먼 거리를 빈번하게 이동하여 다양한 환경변화를 겪게 되고, 사회 기반 시설을 따라 이동하여 ‘비공간’에서의 거주 시간이 많아졌다. 이러한 특성은 의복에서 보다 다양한 기능을 요구한다. 따라서 본 연구에서는 네오 노마드의 이동 특성에 부합된 기능을 의복에 공기를 주입하여 수행하도록 공기주입형 모듈러(modular)복을 개발하고자 하였다. 이를 위하여 네오 노마드가 의복에서 요구하는 기능을 관련 문헌을 통하여 분류하고, 실질적 기능 특성과 정도를 직접관철과 설문을 통하여 파악하고, 그 결과를 분석하여 의복 개발에 반영하였다. 본 연구에서는 각 개인이 처하는 환경에 따라 기능을 취사선택하도록 단위, 즉 모듈 구성을 통한 디자인을 개발하고자 하였으며 이 때 사용된 각 모듈을 인간 공학적 방법에 따라 개발하였고 객관적 평가를 통하여 그 실효성을 검증하였다. 1. 네오 노마드 공기주입형 모듈러복의 기능성 도출 연구복에 필요한 기능을 도출하고자, ‘비공간’으로서의 열차 객실에서 이동 중의 사람들을 직접 관찰하고, 비행기, 열차, 버스 승객을 대상으로 설문조사하였다. 설문은 객실에서의 안락감 추구방향, 환경변화에 대비한 물리적, 심리적 기능 추구방향을 파악하기 위한 내용으로 구성하였다. 객실에서의 가장 빈번한 활동과 그 자세에서 오는 불편함과 요구되는 개선 방향, 온열 환경 변화에 대하여 필요한 기능, 타인의 시선에 대한 불편함과 그에 대비한 기능에 관한 문항이 설문 내용에 포함되었다. 설문 결과 객실 내에서 가장 빈번한 활동은 ‘수면’으로 나타났고, 이 자세에서 오는 불편함을 ‘수면 중의 머리가 떨어지는 것’과 ‘허리가 불편한 것’으로 나타났다. 요구 기능은 ‘머리지지’, ‘허리지지’로 나타났다. 온열 환경 변화에 대응하여 많은 응답자가 덧옷을 준비한다고 하였지만, 부피를 차지하는 것이 불편하다고 응답하였다. 타인의 시선에 대한 불편함은 비교적 낮게 나타났으나, 성별로 구별하였을 때는 남성보다 여성이 불편함을 느끼는 것으로 나타났다. 2. 공기 컨테이너의 제작과 최적 형태 연구 공기주입 재킷에서 기능을 수행할 컨테이너를 제작하여 형태를 고찰하였다. 공기 컨테이너는 공기 주입 후 가로, 세로 높이가 변화하는데 2차원적인 웰딩(welding) 컨테이너는 웰딩의 최단 거리에 영향을 받아 최고 높이가 결정되었다. 2차원적인 컨테이너에서 높이를 확보하기 위해서는 컨테이너의 도안 간의 거리가 멀어야 하고 그에 따라 소재의 면적이 필요 이상으로 넓어져야 함을 알 수 있었다. 이에 효율적인 컨테이너를 구성하고자 3차원적인 구성을 고안하였다. 3차원적인 컨테이너는 같은 높이에 도달하기 위하여 2차원적인 컨테이너에 비하여 소재의 사용 면적 면에서 효율적이었다. 3. 네오 노마드 모듈러복의 개발 및 평가 설문 결과에서 도출된 다양한 기능을 효율적으로 구현하고, 휴대성을 높이기 위하여, 모듈러 시스템 중 레이어링(Layering) 결합 방식으로 연구복을 디자인하였다. 안락감을 위한 모듈인 공기주입형 베스트, 보온을 위한 공기주입형 재킷, 타인의 시선을 차단할 수 있으며 동시에 연구복을 휴대할 수 있는 파우치(pouch)로 구성하였다. 각 모듈에 따라 기능을 가진 공기 컨테이너를 제작하고 연구복에 적용하였다. 베스트의 공기 컨테이너가 머리지지, 허리지지의 기능을 가지도록 인체에 적합한 형태로 고안하였다. 베스트 기능의 실효성 검증을 위해 체압분포 실험과 주관적 안락감 평가를 실시하였고 결과는 시판되고 있는 여행용 공기주입형 목 쿠션과 허리 쿠션에 비하여 안락하다는 평가를 얻어 실효성이 입증되었다. 보온을 위한 재킷 개발을 위하여 보온력이 우수한 웰딩 도안을 선택하고, 최대 공기 주입 후에도 움직임에 지장이 없도록 웰딩 도안을 배치하였다. 인공기후실에서 써멀 마네킹(Thermal Mannequin)을 이용하여 보온 재킷의 보온력을 평가하였다. 공기 주입 전, 후의 보온력에 차이를 나타내 환경에 따라 낮은 보온력에서 높은 보온력까지 단계별로 선택할 수 있음이 검증되었다. 모듈러복을 휴대할 수 있는 파우치가 무릎을 덮을 수 있는 형태로 변환되도록 디자인하여 휴대성과 타인 시선 차단의 이중기능을 수행하도록 하였으며 공기주입 전, 후의 연구복의 부피를 비교하여 휴대 시 편의성을 입증하였다.
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