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兒童의 批判的 思考力 發達에 關한 一硏究

Title
兒童의 批判的 思考力 發達에 關한 一硏究
Other Titles
A Study on the Development of Children's Critical Thinking Abilities
Authors
高秉南
Issue Date
1978
Department/Major
대학원 가정관리학과
Publisher
이화여자대학교 대학원
Degree
Master
Advisors
安昌一
Abstract
本 硏究는 兒童의 批判的 思考力에 關해 알아 보는 데 그 目的이있다. 즉 批判的 思考力의 領域別 發達程度와,批判的 思考力과 關聯된 要因은 어느 정도의 關係가 있는가를 알아 보기 위한 것이다. 따라서 本 硏究에서는 다음과 같은 問題를 提起하여 究明하고자 한다. 1. 批判的 思考力은 年齡의 增加에 따라 어떻게 變化하는가? 2. 批判的 思考力은 知能과는 어떤 關係가 있는가? 3. 批判的 思考力은 學業成績과 어떤 關係가 있는가? 4. 批判的 思考力은 性差가 있는가? 이를 위해 本 硏究에서는 비슷한 것끼리 한데 모으기, 差異点 찾기, 原因과 結果 類推하기, 이름 붙이기로 構成된 兒童用 批判的 思考力 測定檢査 (Critical Thinking Measurement Technique : CTMT) 를 飜案하여 使用한 面接形式이며 批判的 思考力과 知能, 學業成績과의 關係를 究明하기 위해 知能檢査를 實施하고, 1977年度 1 學期末 成績을 利用하였다. 그 硏究對象으로는 學齡前(24名),1學年(32名), 2學年(29名), 이었다. 本 硏究는(E)국민학교의 1,2학년에서 各各 1 個 學級(學齡前除外)에서 抽出하였으므로 全體 兒童에 對한 批判的 思考力을 나타낸다고 볼 수는 없으나 本 檢査에 依한 結果를 要約하면 다음과 같다. 1. 批判的 思考力의 領域別 發達程度를 보면, 비슷한 것끼리 한데 모으기에서는 各 集團間에 年齡에 따라 差異가 없었으나 差異点 찾기, 原因과 結果 類推하기, 이름 붙이기에서는 年齡에 따라 差異가 있었다. ( P< ·01 ) 4個의 卞位檢査를 한데 묶어서 보면 역시 年齡集團間에 差異가 있었다. ( P < ·01) 2. 批判的 思考力과 知能과의 사이에는 相關係數 .371 의 相關을 보였다. 領域別로 볼 때 비슷한 것끼리 한데 모으기, 差異点 찾기는 知能과는 別로 相關이 없고(.268,.222), 原因과 結果 類推하기, 이름 붙이기와는 .351, .542로 다소 높은 相關을 보였다. 知能의 한 要因인 推理力과 비슷한 것끼리 한데 모으기는 .246 으로 相關이 낮고 推理力과 原因과 結果 類推하기는 .341 의 相關을 보였다. 言語槪念과 이름 붙이기는 .464로 다소높은 相關이 있는 것으로 나타났다. 3. 批判的 思考力과 學業成績과의 關係를 보면 비슷한 것끼리 한데 모으기, 差異点 찾기는 成績에 따라 別로 差異가 없지만 보다 高等한 思考能力인 原因과 結果 類推하기, 이름 붙이기는 어느 學年에서나 成績이 우수할수록 높았다. ( P< .01) 4. 批判的 思考力은 男.女別로 差異가 없었다. 다만 이름붙이기 能力에서만 學齡前 男子 兒童이 女子 兒童보다높은 点數를 보였다.;The purpose of this study was to determine how children's critical thinking abilities are developed. Specifically, it was attempted to find out how each of the four major areas of the critical thinking abilities develops and what are some of the other factors related to the development of the critical thinking abilities. The following four questions were asked in this study: 1. How children's critical thinking abilities are developed as children grow older? 2. Is there any relationship between the critical thinking abilities and intelligence? What, if any, are the relationshipes? 3. Is there any relationship between the critical thinking abilities and academic performance? What, if any, are the relationships? 4. Is there any difference between boys and girls? In this study, the critical Thinking Measurement Techniques (CTMT), which was consisted of Grouping Noticing differences, Inferring causes and Effects, and Labeling, was used to determine the level of the children's critical thinking abilities. Children's intelligence test and children's grades on the school works were also used The subjects used were 24 pre-school children, 32 first graders and 29 second graders. The ratio between boys and girls are same. The first and second graders were sampled from the same class in the same shcool which is Iocated in Seoul. This may pose same limitation in generalizing the findings. The results are summarized as follows: 1. There is no significant differences on "Grouping" among the three different age level while there are significant differences on other areas among the different age levels. 2. Correlation coefficient .371 coas found ketween the total score on the critical thinking abilities and IQ. The correlation coefficients between IQ and each of the subareas of the CTMT are: a) Between Grouping scores and total IQ : r = .27. b) 〃 Differences scores and total IQ:r= .22. c) 〃 Cause & Effert scores and 〃 :r= .35. d) Between Labeling scores and total IQ : r= .54. e) 〃 Grouping scores and Reasong scores on the intelligence test : r= .25. f) 〃 Cause & Effect scores and Reasoning scores : r= .34. g) 〃 Labeling scores and Verbal factor scores : r= .46. 3. There is no significant differences found between academic performances and both Grouping and Differences, while there is some significant difference between academic performance and both Cause & Effect and Labeling scores. 4. There is no sex difference on the critical thinking abilities. The only significant difference found between sex was on the labeling scores, that is,boys show a little higher scores than girls.
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